### Working paper

## Hessian manifolds, CD(K,N) -spaces, and optimal transportation of log-concave measures

We study the Monge--Kantorovich problem with one-dimensional marginals $\mu$ and $\nu$ and

the cost function $c = \min\{l_1, \ldots, l_n\}$

that equals the minimum of a finite number $n$ of affine functions $l_i$

satisfying certain non-degeneracy assumptions. We prove that the problem

is equivalent to a finite-dimensional extremal problem. More precisely, it is shown that the solution is concentrated

on the union of $n$ products $I_i \times J_i$, where $\{I_i\}$ and $\{J_i\}$

are partitions of the real line into unions of disjoint connected sets.

The families of sets $\{I_i\}$ and $\{J_i\}$ have the following properties: 1) $c=l_i$ on $I_i \times J_i$,

2) $\{I_i\}, \{J_i\}$ is a couple of partitions solving an auxiliary $n$-dimensional extremal problem.

The result is partially generalized to the case of more than two marginals.

We find sufficient conditions for a probability measure $\mu$ to satisfy an inequality of the type $$ \int_{\R^d} f^2 F\Bigl(\frac{f^2}{\int_{\R^d} f^2 d \mu} \Bigr) d \mu \le C \int_{\R^d} f^2 c^{*}\Bigl(\frac{|\nabla f|}{|f|} \Bigr) d \mu + B \int_{\R^d} f^2 d \mu, $$ where $F$ is concave and $c$ (a cost function) is convex. We show that under broad assumptions on $c$ and $F$ the above inequality holds if for some $\delta>0$ and $\epsilon>0$ one has $$ \int_{0}^{\epsilon} \Phi\Bigl(\delta c\Bigl[\frac{t F(\frac{1}{t})}{{\mathcal I}_{\mu}(t)} \Bigr] \Bigr) dt < \infty, $$ where ${\mathcal I}_{\mu}$ is the isoperimetric function of $\mu$ and $\Phi = (y F(y) -y)^{*}$. In a partial case $${\mathcal I}_{\mu}(t) \ge k t \phi ^{1-\frac{1}{\alpha}} (1/t), $$ where $\phi$ is a concave function growing not faster than $\log$, $k>0$, $1 < \alpha \le 2$ and $t \le 1/2$, we establish a family of tight inequalities interpolating between the $F$-Sobolev and modified inequalities of log-Sobolev type. A basic example is given by convex measures satisfying certain integrability assumptions.

We consider probability measures on R∞ and study optimal transportation mappings for the case of infinite Kantorovich distance. Our examples include 1) quasi-product measures, 2) measures with certain symmetric properties, in particular, exchangeable and stationary measures. We show in the latter case that existence problem for optimal transportation is closely related to ergodicity of the target measure. In particular, we prove existence of the symmetric optimal transportation for a certain class of stationary Gibbs measures.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.