Консолидация гражданского общества в переходной России
The article analyzes modern trends of Russian patriotism, which are considered from the point of view of the global context of patriotic education, civic education and nation-building. The author cites the all-Russia polls, as well as the results of the sixth wave of World Value Survey (2010-2014). She also demonstrates the results of the empirical research conducted by the method of content analysis using ATLAS.ti. The research covers eight strategic documents of patriotic education of the United States, Singapore, China and Russia. Key findings from the study are as follows. (1) The abrupt nature of the Russian patriotism shows that external events play a major role in its formation rather than public policy. The consolidation of the Russian society is not realized through the cultivation of positive patriotic values, but on the basis of negative factors. Their influence can only lead to a blind, but not to the constructive patriotism. (2) Russian program documents demonstrate the emphasis on a militarist bias of patriotic education, and this is the evidence of a blurring legal and theoretical basis of formation of patriotism in Russia. Patriotic education cannot exist for its own sake. Also, it cannot only develop the emotional component of state identity. This prevents the formation of constructive patriotism and involves cultivating such qualities as unconditional love for the homeland, convinced devotion to public authorities, unquestioning positive evaluation of the government structures, and the rejection of critical evaluation, readiness to defend the state up to the sacrifice. (3) There is a need to harmonize the “official” definition of patriotism with the concepts of civic education and nation-building. Patriotism can be regarded as love of country, devotion to the state, which is expressed in the knowledge of the historical and contemporary achievements of the country, the free support of spiritual and moral values, the manifestation of citizenship based on the active participation in the activities of civil society, constructive criticism of the government and express their point view. Such definition of patriotism integrates emotional relationship of the citizen to the country, the state, civil and national identity. It emphasizes the importance of the traditions and values, and creates a construct of active and free of social behavior without infringing alternative values, traditions and attitudes that exist in the world.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.