Экономический рост и идеи
In spite of the “Lukashenko ultimatum” given to Belarusian science at the end of 2011, the status quo was still maintained and promised reforms were stalled. Attempts to initiate “internal competition” between academic and university science ran into obstacles due to the inertia of the former and inactivity of the latter. The announced transformation of the funding structure and the increased actual costs for financing scientific, technical, and innovation activity did not change the longstanding trend of science being chronically underfunded. The key problem of linking science with business and industry was still not resolved. Apart from some minor improvements to the situation regarding postgraduates in several disciplines, the general trend of downsizing and ageing of scientific staff continued. Positive results during the year included: improved research intensity figures (up from 0.7% in 2011 to 1% in 2012); Belarus’ rising international ratings (from 52nd to 45th place, according to the Knowledge Index; from 73rd to 59th place, according to the Knowledge Economic Index; and 6th place worldwide for the number of patent applications filed); and various successes in the information technology field.
The evolution of two main economic theories is investigated and described - the theory of economic equilibrium and the theory of economic growth, from its birth phase to the present.
The chapter is devoted to the long-run aspects of economic growth. We show the impacts of changes in the basic mode of production upon the evolution of economic thought in this research field. The challenges of perspective technological shifts to contemporary growth theories are discussed in the last part of the chapter.
This paper presents an analysis of innovative growth of the economy in terms of increase in production of natural resources held within the framework of the model. The aim is to study the problem questions commodity-oriented economy based on building models of endogenous growth. The models are built in the framework of the theory of endogenous growth and are a multi-sector extension of the Solow model with a constant rate of savings. In the proposed model to the economy added resource sector by developing its different from other companies, changes and non-tradable goods sector.
The 2011 financial crisis was accompanied by an unprecedented reduction in science budgets. The era of primarily state#financed scientific research is now drawing to a close, thus putting the issue of finding mechanisms to commercialise science onto the agenda. This is in line with recently#emerging trends in science#funding policy, and corresponds to the strategic benchmarks of the State Innovation Development Program (SIDP) for 2011–2015, which was adopted in May 2011.The SIDP 2011–2015 sets practical goals for introducing innovationin legislative, institutional, financial, human resources, and infrastructural reform fields. The unrushed implementation of these reforms during the previous five#year period (SIDP 2007–2010) was replaced by convulsive and radical reform attitudes in late 2011 when, against the backdrop of the financial crisis, the critically low level of science funding began to become painfully obvious. The initial year of SIDP 2011–2015 was quite productive in terms of legislative improvements in the fields of science, technology and innovation. But the results from implementing innovation projects were less impressive, due to a number of major infrastructural, staffing, and financial challenges.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.