Неформальная занятость в России: что говорят альтернативные определения?
According to the existing literature, informality rates for Russia vary in a wide range from slightly more than 5 to nearly 30 percent. The question arises: what are causes and consequences of so huge variation? Using RMLS data for 2009 the paper investigates the degree of congruence between several alternative definitions of the informal employment in the context of Russian labor market. Analysis shows that depending on empirical definitions informality rates considerably differ – from 11 to 24 percent. With different approaches not only scale of the informal employment but also its socio-demographic profile radically changes. Furthermore, the econometric analysis reveals that the conditional impact of particular factors on the risk of informality varies considerably from one definition to another. This suggests that that estimates of the informal employment for Russia could hardly be regarded as methodologically robust.
Having unique data we investigate informal employment and “envelope payments” as additional costs of worker displacement in the Russian labor market. In particular we analyze whether displaced workers experience
more involuntary informal employment than their non-displaced counterparts. Our main results confirm
our contention that displacement entraps some of the workers in involuntary informal employment. Those who quit, in turn, experience voluntary informality for the most part, but there seems a minority of quitting workers who end up in involuntary informal jobs. This scenario does not fall on all the workers who separate but predominantly on workers with low human capital. Being able to distinguish between involuntary and voluntary informal employment our study contributes to the debate in the informality literature on the issue of segmented versus integrated labor markets. We also pursue the issue of informality persistence and find that informal employment is indeed persistent as some workers churn from one informal job to the next. Job separations in general and not displacement events per se are associated with larger “envelope payments”.
Work schedule structures individual life and matches biological and social rhythms in various ways. Given the widespread prevalence of nonstandard work schedules (such as working evenings, nights and weekends) in the context of the '24 / 7 economy', the need for research into how these schedules affect worker well-being, including the issues of work-life balance, has never been greater. It is difficult for a person working in evenings, nights or weekends to spend enough time with friends, acquaintances and relatives, actively participate in social events, share family ceremonies and rituals, and keep up the traditions that are important for maintaining social relations. This study is the first attempt to estimate the occurrence and effects of nonstandard work schedules in Russia, using the data of European Social Survey (5th round). About two-thirds of Russian workers work evenings, nights or weekends and this is one of the highest figures among European countries. Regression models reveal that nonstandard work schedules have negative effects on perceived work-life balance. Indeed, it appears that working several times a month or even once a month on weekends in the evening or at night is enough to bring about a deterioration in the work-life balance. Although the results of many studies suggest that the negative effects of non-standard work schedules manifest themselves differently depending on gender and family characteristics, in this study we did not confirm that gender and presence of children moderate the effects of non-standard work schedules on work-life balance. The academic community and government bodies should pay more attention to nonstandard work schedules, which can generate serious social problems. Further research should include a wider variety of indicators of health and subjective well-being, as applied to various categories of Russian workers.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.