Выбор регионов для размещения инвестиций транснациональных корпораций: сравнительный анализ Восточной Германии, Чехии и Польши
The focus of this article is the empirical identification of factors influencing Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in transition economies on a regional level (NUTS 2). The analysis is designed as benchmark between three neighboring post-communist re- gions, i.e. East Germany, the Czech Republic and Poland. Their different transition paths have not only resulted in economic differences. We can also observe today that the importance of pull factors for FDI varies significantly across the regions. This analysis shows that in comparison with Poland and the Czech Republic, East Germany’s major benefit is its purchasing power, its geographical proximity to West European markets, and its modern infrastructure. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that intra-industry linkages such as specialization and agglomeration economies are relevant factors for the location decision of foreign investors. This result can help to explain the regional divergence of FDI streams in transition economies.
"Employment Relations" is widely taught in business schools around the world. Increasingly however more emphasis is being placed on the comparative and international dimensions of the relations between employers and workers. It is becoming ever more important to comprehend today’s work and employment issues alongside a knowledge of the dynamics between global financial and product markets, global production chains, national and international employment actors and institutions and the ways in which these relationships play out in different national contexts.
This textbook is the first to present a cross-section of country studies, including all four BRIC countries, Brazil, Russia, India and China alongside integrative thematic chapters covering all the important topics needed to excel in this field. The textbook also benefits from the editors' and contributors' experience as leading scholars in Employment Relations. The book is an ideal resource for students on advanced undergraduate and postgraduate comparative programmes across areas such as Employment Relations, Human Resource Management, Political Economy, Labour Politics, Industrial and Economic Sociology, Regulation and Social Policy.
Purpose – This paper aims to examine the challenges experienced by Russian research and development (R&D) organisations in international technology collaboration in the global innovation arena.
Design/methodology/approach – A total of 33 Russian R&D organisations were selected from a sample of 138 potential participating organisations from the Central, Nord-Western and Volga Federal Districts of Russia to take part in a qualitative interview study. Organisations were selected based on their responses to a questionnaire which measured the extent and nature of their experience in international technology collaborations. Participants were interviewed about their experiences of engaging in international technology collaboration under two different modes of collaboration: short term customer-supplier relationships vs longer-term strategic alliances. The semi-structured interviews focused on 15 different issues which had been derived from the previously published literature on international technology collaboration and a thematic analysis was conducted on the resultant data.
Findings – The analysis indicates which of the issues reported as problematic in the literature were pertinent to the Russian organisations in the sample under each mode of collaboration. The findings also provide some evidence that Russian R&D organisations have made progress in the transition from the command to the market economy and are adjusting to the new environment, albeit gradually in some cases.
Research limitations/implications – The paper presents interpretive, qualitative findings, which were analysed from a Russian perspective in three out of seven Federal Districts of Russia. The research sample does not include non-Russian counterparts and the analysis is restricted to those variables which have previously been identified as exerting an influence over international technology collaborations.
Practical implications – The study reveals a broad range of insights into the types of issues which warrant close managerial attention from both Russian managers and their international partners in engaging in international technology collaborations with contemporary Russian R&D organisations.
Originality/value – The research suggests that different sets of challenges emerge for organizations engaged in different modes of international collaboration and provides insight into the unique context of Russia, challenging some of the previously published analyses of the influence of Russian business and managerial practices on the innovativeness of contemporary Russian organisations.
Recently, emerging economies have contributed significantly to the world economic growth and output. This Research Handbook attempts to fill in the gap of sparse publications on marketing in emerging economies. It addresses diverse issues from a universal as well as regional and country-specific perspective, shedding light on general topics such as data collection procedure equivalence and marketing accountability, and also exploring various contexts like Central & Eastern Europe and India. Comparing the ways in which marketing is performed in emerging and advanced economies, the chapters explore various aspects including business-to-business marketing relationships, the role of multi-cultural markets in marketing and retail marketing of multinational corporations, corporate social responsibility and consumer loyalty.
The dynamic growth of multinational enterprises (MNEs) from emerging economies – mostly from so-called BRIC countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China) – is widely acknowledged as one of the key developments in the global economy in the last fifteen years. Today emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) account for nearly one-tenth of the foreign sales and foreign assets of the top 500 multinationals in the world, compared to only 1–2 per cent in 1995 (UNCTAD, 2010). In the 2000s, the number of companies from emerging economies in the Fortune Global 500 has more than tripled (from twenty-one to seventy-five). In the new decade, competition between multinationals from developed countries and EMNEs with global aspirations (defined by Boston Consulting Group as ‘global challengers’) will continue to intensify. This new trend in globalisation of the world economy was reflected recently in booming interest in EMNEs in international business (IB) and strategic management (SM) fields, including publication of several books on the subject (Rugman, 2005; Goldstein, 2007; Casanova, 2009; Larcon, 2009; Ramamurti and Singh, 2009a).
Most of the existing EMNEs literature is either quite descriptive or is based on rather limited arguments in the early theoretical interpretations of foreign expansion of MNEs from emerging economies. Attempts to explain the growth of foreign direct investment (FDI) and reinforcement of EMNEs’ positions with country-specific advantages (CSA) come across several difficulties. Reasoning based on CSAs could not suffice the need for our comprehensive understanding of the nature and mechanisms of EMNEs’ competitive advantages. On one hand, today (as compared to the second half of the twentieth century) FDI is no longer the only attribute of multinational activities. Cross-border value-adding non-equity arrangements are gaining at least similar strategic importance for MNEs from both developed and emerging economies.
Multinationals from Brazil, Russia, India and China, known as the BRIC countries, are a new and powerful force in global competition and are challenging the incumbency of much older global companies from the developed world. Emerging market multinational enterprises (EMNEs) now account for a quarter of foreign investment in the world, are a prolific source of innovation and make almost one in three cross-border acquisitions globally. Despite this, traditional theories of international business do not provide a satisfactory explanation of their behaviour or performance. The authors of this book shine new light on the rise of the EMNEs and how they have built a competitive advantage through innovation, novel configurations of their international value chains and the acquisition of companies overseas. Any manager, policy maker or researcher who wishes to understand the emergence of this new breed of multinational will find this book an invaluable resource.
The article is devoted to the peculiarities of international strategy development. The main goal of the research is to provide the system of the most relevant factors that should be analyzed for the right international strategic choice. The factors are divided into three major groups, industry factors, macroeconomic factors and company’s internal factors. After analyzing these factors the company should be able to take the top priority decision on its international business that is about determining the right degree of adaptation and standardization. The research results can be utilized by companies’ that are planning to start or already conducting international business operations.сможет принять стратегическое решение в отношении своего международного бизнеса, состоящее в определении необходимой степени его адаптации и стандартизации. Результаты исследования могут быть использованы в практической деятельности компаний, планирующих или уже занимающихся международным бизнесом.
This article conducts a plant-level study of the factors affecting foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow to a large openning economy endowed with specific factor advantages. We conclude that the distribution of FDI in the Russian regions depends on market access and can be most notably by the knowledge-capital framework. Factor endowments built by natural resources are more successful in explaining the location decisions of export-platform affiliates. The impact of natural resources depends on how the availability of these resources is measured. The results reject the crowding-out effects of resource FDI and prove co-location mode, when service investments are attracted to resource-rich regions. Labour cost advantages better explain the preferences of non-trading service affiliates
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.