The availability and cost of child care play an important role in the decisions that households make about allocating labor and choosing between informal home care and ECD.A mother’s decision to join the labor force is based on her expected earnings compared with the costs of available day care. Insufficient child care options could be a barrier for women with children to join the labor force (for example, Kimmel 1998). The custodial role of ECD centers frees female household members for other activities and allows mothers to enter the labor market. The additional income newly employed mothers bring home can be significant and may lift some households out of poverty. In the longer term, the increased work experience may also lead to increased job skills and higher earnings for household members. Better employment options, in turn, may decrease the reliance of low-income families on government subsidies and increase their self-sufficiency.Research in developing countries also indicates that females other than the mother, especially young daughters, provide free child care, releasing mothers for paid work (for example, Deutsch 1998). For example, Psacharopoulos and Arriagada (1989) find that in Brazilian households, the presence of younger siblings has a negative effect on school attendance of older children. In El Salvador, girls missed more school than boys because they stayed home to help with chores (Bittencourt and DiCicco 1979). Deolalikar (1998) finds significant differences in girls’ (but not boys’) school enrollment in householdswith children under 3 in Kenya. He reports a particularly strong effect for girls attending secondary school. The presence of a child 3 or younger reduces the probability that a girl aged 14–17 would be enrolled in secondary school by 41 percent, conditional on other determinants of enrollment. The corresponding effect for boys is only 5 percent. These studies indicate that when child care centers are unavailable or too costly, older siblings are more likely to provide child care.
In this article, we describe the switch_probit command, which implements the maximum likelihood method to fit the model of the binary choice with binary endogenous regressors.
The aim of this volume is to provide an extensive account of the most recent advances in statistics for discretely observed Lévy processes. These days, statistics for stochastic processes is a lively topic, driven by the needs of various fields of application, such as finance, the biosciences, and telecommunication.
The three chapters of this volume are completely dedicated to the estimation of Lévy processes, and are written by experts in the field. The first chapter by Denis Belomestny and Markus Reiß treats the low frequency situation, and estimation methods are based on the empirical characteristic function. The second chapter by Fabienne Comte and Valery Genon-Catalon is dedicated to non-parametric estimation mainly covering the high-frequency data case. A distinctive feature of this part is the construction of adaptive estimators, based on deconvolution or projection or kernel methods. The last chapter by Hiroki Masuda considers the parametric situation. The chapters cover the main aspects of the estimation of discretely observed Lévy processes, when the observation scheme is regular, from an up-to-date viewpoint.
This paper models household demand for childcare and mothers' labour force participation in Romania. The model estimates the effects of the price of childcare, mothers' wages, and household characteristics on household behaviour with respect to childcare and maternal employment. We find that both the maternal decision to become employed and the decision to use out-of-home care are sensitive to the price of childcare. A decrease in the price of care can increase the number of working mothers and thus can reduce poverty in some households. We also find that the potential market wage of the mother has a significant positive effect on the decision to purchase market care and on the decision to engage in paid employment. The level of household non-wage income has little effect on maternal employment and on the demand for childcare.