Taylor spectrum for modules over Lie algebras
All classes of integrable cocycles in H2(L,L) are obtained for Lie algebra of type G2 over an algebraically closed field of characteristic 2. It is proved that there exist only two orbits of classes of integrable cocycles with respect to automorphism group. The global deformation is shown to exist for any nontrivial class of integrable cocycles. These deformations are isomorphic to one of the two algebras of Cartan type, one of which being S(3:1,ω) while the other H(4:1,ω).
Perverse schobers are conjectural categorical analogs of perverse sheaves. We show that such structures appear naturally in Homological Minimal Model Program which studies the effect of birational transformations such as flops, on the coherent derived categories. More precisely, the flop data are analogous to hyperbolic stalks of a perverse sheaf. In the first part of the paper we study schober-type diagrams of categories corresponding to flops of relative dimension 1, in particular we determine the categorical analogs of the (compactly supported) cohomology with coefficients in such schobers. In the second part we consider the example of a “web of flops” provided by the Grothendieck resolution associated to a reductive Lie algebra g and study the corresponding schober-type diagram. For g = sl3 we relate this diagram to the classical space of complete triangles studied by Schubert, Semple and others.
The Lp-Brunn-Minkowski theory for p≥1, proposed by Firey and developed by Lutwak in the 90's, replaces the Minkowski addition of convex sets by its Lp counterpart, in which the support functions are added in Lp-norm. Recently, Böröczky, Lutwak, Yang and Zhang have proposed to extend this theory further to encompass the range p∈[0,1). In particular, they conjectured an Lp-Brunn-Minkowski inequality for origin-symmetric convex bodies in that range, which constitutes a strengthening of the classical Brunn-Minkowski inequality. Our main result confirms this conjecture locally for all (smooth) origin-symmetric convex bodies in Rn and p∈[1−cn3/2,1). In addition, we confirm the local log-Brunn--Minkowski conjecture (the case p=0) for small-enough C2-perturbations of the unit-ball of ℓnq for q≥2, when the dimension n is sufficiently large, as well as for the cube, which we show is the conjectural extremal case. For unit-balls of ℓnq with q∈[1,2), we confirm an analogous result for p=c∈(0,1), a universal constant. It turns out that the local version of these conjectures is equivalent to a minimization problem for a spectral-gap parameter associated with a certain differential operator, introduced by Hilbert (under different normalization) in his proof of the Brunn-Minkowski inequality. As applications, we obtain local uniqueness results in the even Lp-Minkowski problem, as well as improved stability estimates in the Brunn-Minkowski and anisotropic isoperimetric inequalities.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.
Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.
Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.