Towards a Better Life? Assessing Some Initial Effects of Russian Pension Reform
The philosophical and psychological views on the problem of happiness since Aristotle to our days are summarized. Building on both philosophical discussions and recent data of sociological and psychological research, the author reveals two qualitatively distinct phenomena behind the common word “happiness”, that have different attributes and regularities. The firs one is the experience of subjective well-being that is directly associated with the basic needs gratification, while the second one is the experience of enjoyment as the experience of being engaged in some personally meaningful activity or close relationships.
Russland ist eine alternde Gesellschaft. Mit der späten Lebensphase beschäftigte sich primär die Medizin. Das Bild vom Alter war negativ. Erst seit den 1990er Jahren kommt das Bild in Bewegung. Das ist ein Verdienst der sozialpsychologisch orientierten Gerontologie. Der sozioökonomische Umbruch verschärfte die sozialen Probleme, öffnete aber auch neue Wege zu deren Bewältigung. Heute gibt es in Russland soziale Dienste, deren Qualität aber an mangelhaften gesetzlichen Grundlagen, lückenhafter Ausbildung des Personals und dem Fehlen zivilgesellschaftlicher Institutionen krankt.
The principles of pension reform that has started in Russia in 2002 г. were not the same because of the social, economic and demographic changes. Nevertheless for the time being the situation in the pension sphere cant be determined as stable. The author analyses the main factors clarifying the current characteristics of the pension system in this country as well as the decisions made by the federal government. The future rise of the responsibility of the employed for their future incomes after reaching the pension age is considered to be inevitable.
The aging of Russian population leads to inefficiency of Pay-As-You-Go system, where the benefits come solely from government taxation of current workers' wages, and seems to be one of the problems of Russian Pension System. This is the overview of Russian demographic settings compared to other countries from US CIA ranking. Long-run instruments of influencing demography in Russia are stated below.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.