Globalization in the economy affects the legal regulation, in particular the legal regulation of labour as one of the main business costs are the costs associated with employees, in particular wages, salary, other payments. Besides, investors are attracted by the ability to respond quickly to the changing situation in the economy. It depends in particular on the possibility to dismiss those employees abundant for enterprise development. At the current stage of world economic development, lawmakers have faced the challenge to maintain the attractiveness of local labour law for employers and at the same time strengthen the protection of labour rights, in particular termination the employment contract without employee's fault. Foreign lawmakers solve this issue in different ways. The purpose of the legal regulation is balancing the interests of employer and employee. The means of ensuring that balance differ. In particular, it depends on the specific legal regulations in each country. The criteria for the comparison were as follows: the form of preventing the termination of the employment contract; criteria for determining the notice period; the presence or absence of state authority notice of the employees; the need for coordination dismissal of employees with the state body. The main provisions of the procedural requirements for individual dismissals in Austria, France, Germany, Spain, Canada, Romania, France, Switzerland were analyzed. The legal regulation of the termination of the employment contract by the employer without the employee's fault in foreign countries is characterized by the following common features: the right of an employer to dismiss an employee on the grounds stipulated by the legislation in compliance with a specific procedural requirements; the lack of a disciplinary offense as a reason to disciplinary action, under which an employer may take such kind of disciplinary action as dismissal; the presence of notice to the employee to be dismissed. The analysis of legal regulation of terminating the employment contract allows selecting three models: the country with prevailing regulatory flexibility over rigidity;
Dans les conditions du développement constant du marché international, il est évident que, de plus en plus souvent, les cocontractants se heurtent aux législations d’autres États qui régissent les procédures d’insolvabilité de leur débiteur étranger. Une des plus importantes problématiques est le rang que la loi accorde à tel ou tel créancier. Nous avons donc analysé le classement des créanciers en examinant le droit russe, ainsi que la jurisprudence. Nos recherches ont montré que le droit russe fait une distinction entre les créanciers selon la date de naissance de leurs créances, ce qui induit une diversité de régimes. Comme en droit français, il existe un certain nombre de créanciers qui peuvent court-circuiter la procédure. Mais le cercle de ces créanciers extraordinaires ne correspond pas toujours à celui établi par le droit français, ce qui doit être pris en compte lors de la conclusion d’un contrat avec un cocontractant russe. Nous constatons que des dispositions particulières du droit russe concernant la satisfaction des créanciers garantis par une sûreté réelle spéciale permettent de défendre effectivement les intérêts de ces créanciers.
One of the most problematic matters of the bankruptcy procedure is a fair distribution of the cost of the debtor's assets among the creditors under liquidation of the debtor. The issue becomes particularly complex for foreign creditors, who often do not have sufficient knowledge about the legal regulation of bankruptcy abroad. In this regard, it seems urgent the question of distribution priorities in foreign legal systems. In this article, the author analyzes the legislation and jurisprudence of France regarding the order of "pre-commencement" creditors’ claims settlement. At present, in this branch of law, a number of reforms have occurred and need to be scrutinized. The most part of Russian studies devoted to bankruptcy proceedings in France do not cover this field. In this study, the author describes the differences between the "pre-commencement" and "post-commencement" creditors, as well as considers the conditions for the recognition of several claims as privileged for the purposes of distribution of property of the debtor. Further, the author examines in detail the sequence established by the legislator concerning the distribution priorities as to the "pre-commencement" creditors, depending on the nature of the property (movable or immovable) to distributed. Finally, the paper presents the methods, which allow creditors to obtain satisfaction of their claims beyond the statutory priority, that is, in a preferential order. Based on the study the author concludes that there exists an economic component of the legal regulation of bankruptcy in France. By introducing certain institutions, the legislator can regulate (stimulate or repress) the activity of several businesses. At the same time, since under liquidation the purpose of the bankruptcy procedure is primarily an equitable distribution of the value of the debtor's assets among creditors, the priority of their claims is an essential characteristic of this branch of the law of a particular state. The results of this research and the conclusions may be used both by practicing lawyers to determine the status of a particular claim against the debtor and by scientific researchers in the study of various approaches to the concept and the legal regime of the "pre-commencement" claims.
We consider certain spaces of functions on the circle, which naturally appear in harmonic analysis, and superposition operators on these spaces. We study the following question: which functions have the property that each their superposition with a homeomorphism of the circle belongs to a given space? We also study the multidimensional case.
We consider the spaces of functions on the m-dimensional torus, whose Fourier transform is p -summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of the exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase. The results generalize to the multidimensional case the one-dimensional results obtained by the author earlier in “Quantitative estimates in the Beurling—Helson theorem”, Sbornik: Mathematics, 201:12 (2010), 1811 – 1836.
We consider the spaces of function on the circle whose Fourier transform is p-summable. We obtain estimates for the norms of exponential functions deformed by a C1 -smooth phase.