In recent years the usability became a central issue for program interfaces design. The effects of functional state in usability testing were examined in an experiment. 26 male students of technical specialties (M=21 years) operated two users interfaces (hierarchical menus). In addition to various performance measures (e.g. task completion time, task completion rate), several psychophysiological measures were taken (e.g. electrocardiogram, galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram). The regression analysis showed the importance of the functional state dynamic for the construction of the model (R2=0,667, p<0,001) considering two significant determinants of users subjective system usability evaluation - eeg alpha rhythm power and heart rate variability. Furthermore our finding revealed that functional state dynamic indirectly influence on usability through interface satisfaction. Differences in psychophysiological parameters point to the need to consider more strongly the factor functional state in usability research and practice.
The article examines the issue of developing models of the text input methods. The urgency of this matter is dictated by the reduction of financial costs of designing new input methods and upgrading existing ones. The article suggests a modeling method, which is verified by a series of experiments. Also the article gives recommendations on the use of the suggested modeling method.
Understanding the mechanisms of visual perception is important in the context of both media research and its applications in design practice. Within the functional approach to interface design, eye tracking is an established method to analyze interface efficacy. At the same time, in today's media design, many rules have been established by practitioners and remain untested. In this mixed-method study, we combine web crawling, web analytics and heat map analysis based on eye tracking, and qualitative usability analysis of composite-graphic model of a website. We check whether eye tracking test results (numeric data and heat map analysis) correlate to usability of key pages of a large website, as measured qualitatively according to recommendations of leading design literature. Among large web spaces, university website clusters represent a special type and suit well for our analysis, as they unite very different publics and are multi-task. We elaborate and pre-test the methodology on three sites of leading universities in the USA and Russia (Harvard University, Moscow State University and St.Petersburg State University). Our results suggest that there is no direct link between design-based elements of page usability and numeric eye tracking data, but heat maps show correlation with design quality; this means we need to continue checking the suggested methodology on larger number of assessors.
In recent years, the usability became a central issue for program interfaces design. This study determined the influence of user’s functional states on graphical user interface usability evaluation. We hypothesized the strong link between changes in psychophysiological indicators of users’ functional states and the way they evaluate the interface usability. 26 male students of technical specialties (mean age – 21 years) operated two users interfaces (hierarchical menus). Menus consisted of information of objects and the task of participants was to classify these objects using six categories. In addition to such performance measures as task completion time and task completion rate several psychophysiological parameters were recorded – electrocardiogram, galvanic skin response, electroencephalogram, respiratory rate. For each participant the experiment consisted of two blocks during which subjects performed the task of classification in menus. Blocks contained 30 objects to classification. Between these blocks, there was a relaxation break to change functional states of the subjects using relaxation procedure (sensory reproduction). We also used the System Usability Scale (SUS) to evaluate the subjective usability level. The regression analysis showed the importance of the functional state dynamic for the construction of the model (R2=0,667, p<0,001) considering two significant determinants of users subjective system usability evaluation – eeg alpha rhythm power and heart rate variability. Furthermore, our finding revealed that functional state dynamic indirectly influence on usability through interface satisfaction. Differences in psychophysiological parameters point to the need to consider more strongly the factor of functional state in usability research and practice.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.