### Working paper

## On families of constrictions in model of overdamped Josephson junction and Painlevé 3 equation

A three-parametrical family of ODEs on a torus arises from a model of Josephson effect in a resistive case when a Josephson junction is biased by a sinusoidal microwave current. We study asymptotics of Arnold tongues of this family on the parametric plane (the third parameter is fixed) and prove that the boundaries of the tongues are asymptotically close to Bessel functions.

We investigate the notion of complex rotation number which was introduced by V.I.Arnold in 1978. Let f: R/Z -> R/Z be a (real) analytic orientation preserving circle diffeomorphism and let omega in C/Z be a parameter with positive imaginary part. Construct a complex torus by glueing the two boundary components of the annulus { z in C/Z : 0< Im(z) < Im(omega)} via the map f+omega. This complex torus is isomorphic to C/(Z+ tau Z) for some appropriate tau in C/Z. According to V.Moldavskis, if the ordinary rotation number rot(f+omega0) is Diophantine and if omega tends to omega0 non tangentially to the real axis, then tau tends to rot(f+omega0). We show that the Diophatine and non tangential assumptions are unnecessary: if rot(f+omega0) is irrational then tau tends to rot(f+omega0) as omega tends to omega0. This, together with results of N. Goncharuk [4], motivates us to introduce a new fractal set (``bubbles'') given by the limit values of tau as omega tends to the real axis. For the rational values of rot (f+omega0), these limits do not necessarily coincide with rot(f+omega0) and form a countable number of analytic loops in the upper half-plane.

We demonstrate that a piecewise linear slow-fast Hamiltonian system with an equilibrium of the saddle-center type can have a sequence of small parameter values for which a one-round homoclinic orbit to this equilibrium exists. This contrasts with the well-known findings by Amick and McLeod and others that solutions of such type do not exist in analytic Hamiltonian systems, and that the separatrices are split by the exponentially small quantity. We also discuss existence of homoclinic trajectories to small periodic orbits of the Lyapunov family as well as symmetric periodic orbits near the homoclinic connection. Our further result, illustrated by simulations, concerns the complicated structure of orbits related to passage through a non-smooth bifurcation of a periodic orbit.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.