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Working paper

How to Measure AI: Trends, Challenges and Implications

How do comparable and similar indicators to measure artificial intelligence (AI) look across countries? In answering this question, our study addresses two main aims. Firstly, the paper introduces a holistic approach as operational tool to measure AI development (supply side) and adoption (demand side), which covers AI definition, AI technologies taxonomy, and a set of indicators. Secondly, the suggested methodology combines several sources of information like survey, bibliometric, and patent analysis. Next, by analyzing the results of a pilot survey and calculations, the reliability of indicators and a tentative assessment the state of the art of AI development and adoption in Russia is provided. Taking into consideration the complex nature of AI, the study represents a number of baseline parameters that give an overview of AI progress on a country level. The next step will be an elaboration of detailed indicators that at capture AI characteristics to a greater extent in different economic sectors