Where did the pre-COVID world stand on protecting the seniors?
We suggest a new way to identify salient features of the Russian labor market. Parameters of basic macroeconomic models pertinent to the Russian labor market are compared to a sample of other countries. We find that estimated values of Okun's coefficient and the elasticity of real wages to labor productivity in Russia are typical for emerging markets. What really distinguishes the labor market is that the elasticity of real wages relative to unemployment in Russia is very high by international standards. The overall conclusion is that the Russian labor market can be characterized by a combination of serious structural problems (such as low employee mobility, the significant size of the shadow sector, etc.) and solid macroeconomic performance, verified by the persistently low rate of unemployment in recent years.
A complete classification of symmetric sets of choice functions with the Arrow property is obtained.
This book offers a comparative analysis of value and identity changes in several post-Communist countries. In light of the tremendous economic, social and political changes in former communist states, the authors compare the values, attitudes and identities of different generations and cultural groups. Based on extensive empirical data, using quantitative and qualitative methods to study complex social identities, this book examines how intergenerational value and identity changes are linked to socio-economic and political development. Topics include the rise of nationalist sentiments, identity formation of ethnic and religious groups and minorities, youth identity formation and intergenerational value conflicts
This book is about the politics and public policies of population change across the globe. It is our attempt to make interdisciplinary progress at the intersection of demography and political science in order to fully understand the breadth and pace of demographic change worldwide. This book grew out of an idea that we tossed around at a workshop in Gothenburg in autumn 2015. In 2012, we had edited a volume on the comparative politics of population ageing in advanced industrial democracies in an attempt to make some advances in the fields of political sociology, comparative politics, comparative political economy and welfare state research (“Ageing Populations in Post-industrial Democracies: Comparative Studies of Policies and Politics, Routledge”, Routledge). In late summer 2016, we met in Odense to sketch out the first ideas for this book and identify suitable experts from across the globe. Since we had been working mostly on the OECD world ourselves, this was a steep learning experience. In 2017, we approached the Käte Hamburger Centre for Global Cooperation Research at the University of Duisburg-Essen with the question whether they could fund an international conference to bring together such a global group of experts. Luckily, they were able to do so, leading to a conference that took place on 23–24 November 2017 in Duisburg. For this volume, we wanted to adopt a wide scope across three dimensions. First, we wanted not only to include population ageing as the dominant driver of change in the age composition of modern societies, but to also add an in-depth analysis of migration as a fundamental factor of population change. Second, we wanted to expand the perspective beyond advanced industrial democracies to cover all major macro-regions of the world in order to develop a fuller picture of the dynamics of the politics of population change. Third, we wanted to broaden the time period under consideration, from 1990 to today and into the near future, up to 2040.
This ambitious open-access book draws the big picture of how population change interplays with politics across the world from 1990 to 2040. Leading social scientists from a wide range of disciplines discuss, for the first time, all major political and policy aspects of population change as they play out differently in each major world region: North and South America; sub-Saharan Africa and the MENA region; Western and East Central Europe; Russia, Belarus and Ukraine; East Asia; Southeast Asia; subcontinental India, Pakistan and Bangladesh; Australia and New Zealand. These macro-regional analyses are completed by cross-cutting global analyses of migration, religion and poverty, and age profiles and intra-state conflicts. From all angles, the book shows how strongly contextualized the political management and the political consequences of population change are. While long-term population ageing and short-term migration fluctuations present structural conditions, political actors play a key role in (mis-)managing, manipulating and (under-)planning population change, which in turn determines how citizens in different groups react.
2nd edition of the first volume of "Capital" by K. Marx, dedicated to the 150th anniversary of the publication.
Background In 2008, £30 million was invested by UK Government in the Healthy Towns (HT) Programme in England. Nine urban areas were selected to develop and implement interventions to tackle the obesogenic environment. These involved multi-sector approaches to promoting physical activity and improve diet through the use of environmental interventions. In this paper, we explore how stakeholders conceptualised and defined programme outcomes in relation to national and local priorities, and across multiple policy sectors.
Methods We undertook semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with 65 HT staff (programme leads, intervention managers and staff) in 2010–2011. Interviews lasted 50 to 110 minutes and were digitally recorded, anonymised and transcribed verbatim. Participants were asked about: the main outcomes and benefits of the HT programme, and links and synergies with other policy areas. Thematic analysis was undertaken; three authors developed and discussed the coding framework, coding outputs and agreed the resultant main themes.
Results Programme staff conceptualised outcomes as extending beyond obesity-related behaviours and identified multiple, complementary policy areas that they were attempting to address through the initiative. Four broad categories of outcomes were articulated:  direct obesity-related outcomes (healthy diet, physical activity);  indirect obesity-related outcomes (obesity awareness, infrastructure provision);  wider health-related outcomes (air quality, social capital);  non-health outcomes (environmental sustainability, monetary savings). Stakeholders emphasised the interrelatedness of these four categories of outcomes. For example, tackling obesity, improving transport planning and air quality could all be addressed using active travel interventions; tackling obesity, enhancing social capital and promoting environmental sustainability could be addressed using ‘growing food’ interventions. Furthermore, obesity and non-obesity agendas were seen as complementary in terms of delivery of their respective outcomes.
Discussion The range and number of outcomes identified may have been both a consequence of the multi-sector, holistic approach taken by HT programme and the ‘on the ground’ reality of implementing complex interventions, whose components touch a wide variety of policy sectors. When planning programmes and their evaluation, consideration of the impact on outcomes that extend beyond the focus of a particular programme could also be beneficial. In the HT programme, policy makers and practitioners believed that delivered interventions could address a range of complementary policy areas, which were all equally important. Taking such a ‘joined-up’ perspective could help increase the efficiency and acceptability of social, environmental, and health policies and interventions.
Abstract Most studies have shown that when men have higher levels of education they are less likely to beat their wives. Some have also shown that consumption of alcohol tends to be a negative catalyst in provoking inebriated males to commit domestic violence against their intimate partners. Thus, understanding the likely causes and/or associated factors of intimate partner violence with ever more concentrated studies is imperative. Studies in the past have not examined four possible categories of husbands to determine a correlation to intimate partner violence: those that are educated and tend to be alcoholics, those that are educated and tend not to drink alcohol, less-educated individuals who tend to be alcoholics, or those that are less educated and tend to not to be alcoholics. Employing the Demographic and Health Survey data for Nigeria, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, this study has shown the likelihood of each category of husband to perpetrate domestic violence on intimate female parnters in Nigeria, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan using the multivariate logistic regression at a 95% confidence interval. From the research it has been found that a husband’s educational level in and of itself offers no significant correlation to IPV perpetration in Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, whereas in Nigeria, educated men were a little more likely to perpetrate IPV compared to men with less education as seen in the following: AOR 1.14, CI 1.02- 1.27; p-value < 0.001. In all, alcoholic men were at least 3 times more likely to commit IPV than nonalcoholic men as suggested in the formula of: CI 3.08-5.56; p-value < 0.001. In Nigeria, men with little or no education, who lived in rural areas and were non-alcoholics were less likely to perpetrate IPV compared to their counterparts in urban areas as suggested by AOR 0.75, CI 0.61-0.93; p-value < 0.01, while alcoholic men with little or no education, who lived in rural areas, showed the strongest proclivity to beat their wives as suggested in AOR 4.37, CI 3.5-5.42; p-value < 0.001. Alcohol seems to outweight the effects of education as an instigator of domestic violence. Its introduction consistently increases the likelihood of IPV and strengthens its statistical significance across sites.
Keywords: Intimate partner violence; husband; education; alcohol; Nigeria; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan