Field experiments have provided ample evidence of ethnic and racial discrimination in the labour market. Less is known about how discrimination varies in multi-ethnic societies, where the ethnic composition of populations is different across locations. Inter-group contact and institutional arrangements for ethnic minorities can mitigate the sense of group threat and reduce discrimination. To provide empirical evidence of this, we conduct a field experiment of ethnic discrimination in Russia with a sample of over 9,000 job applications. We compare ethnically homogeneous cities and cities with ethnically mixed populations and privileged institutional status of ethnic minorities. We find strong discrimination against visible minorities in the former but much weaker discrimination in the latter. These findings demonstrate how institutions and historical contexts of inter-group relations can affect ethnic prejudice and discrimination.
This article presents the findings of the first field experiment – a resume correspondence study – on age discrimination in the Russian labour market. Correspondence studies are nowadays viewed as the most objective way to test for hiring discrimination. This method consists of sending pairs of curricula for job offers, very similar in everything except the trait to be analyzed (age in our case). Data collection for the presented study was conducted in February-March 2018. Pairs of matched applications, one from a fictitious 29-year-old female applicant and one from a fictitious 48-year-old female applicant, were sent to 341 employers with job openings for accountants in Moscow posted on the one of the most popular job search websites. It turned out that the probability of receiving an invitation for an interview for an older candidate is 24-32%, whereas for a younger candidate 45-52%. Thus, the positive callback ratio is 1.8-2.5. The indicator of “net discrimination” calculated as the difference in the shares of positive callbacks from the number of vacancies for which at least one response is received, for the younger and older candidates is 37-49%. Comparing with the results of the existing studies, it turns out that the obtained discrimination level is quite high. Taking into account the population aging, a reduction in the workforce and the inevitable prospect of an increase in the retirement age, measures must be taken to combat age discrimination and allow older people to work on an equal basis with young people.
We consider a problem of computer assisted language and pronunciation learning based on the deep learning methods and the information theory of speech perception. In order to improve the efficiency of testing of pronunciation quality, we propose to train a convolutional neural network using the best reference utterances from the user. The experimental results proved that the proposed approach is characterized by higher accuracy and word recognition speed for several acoustic models when compared to conventional techniques.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.