Field experiments have provided ample evidence of ethnic and racial discrimination in the labour market. Less is known about how discrimination varies in multi-ethnic societies, where the ethnic composition of populations is different across locations. Inter-group contact and institutional arrangements for ethnic minorities can mitigate the sense of group threat and reduce discrimination. To provide empirical evidence of this, we conduct a field experiment of ethnic discrimination in Russia with a sample of over 9,000 job applications. We compare ethnically homogeneous cities and cities with ethnically mixed populations and privileged institutional status of ethnic minorities. We find strong discrimination against visible minorities in the former but much weaker discrimination in the latter. These findings demonstrate how institutions and historical contexts of inter-group relations can affect ethnic prejudice and discrimination.
This article presents the findings of the first field experiment – a resume correspondence study – on age discrimination in the Russian labour market. Correspondence studies are nowadays viewed as the most objective way to test for hiring discrimination. This method consists of sending pairs of curricula for job offers, very similar in everything except the trait to be analyzed (age in our case). Data collection for the presented study was conducted in February-March 2018. Pairs of matched applications, one from a fictitious 29-year-old female applicant and one from a fictitious 48-year-old female applicant, were sent to 341 employers with job openings for accountants in Moscow posted on the one of the most popular job search websites. It turned out that the probability of receiving an invitation for an interview for an older candidate is 24-32%, whereas for a younger candidate 45-52%. Thus, the positive callback ratio is 1.8-2.5. The indicator of “net discrimination” calculated as the difference in the shares of positive callbacks from the number of vacancies for which at least one response is received, for the younger and older candidates is 37-49%. Comparing with the results of the existing studies, it turns out that the obtained discrimination level is quite high. Taking into account the population aging, a reduction in the workforce and the inevitable prospect of an increase in the retirement age, measures must be taken to combat age discrimination and allow older people to work on an equal basis with young people.
We consider a problem of computer assisted language and pronunciation learning based on the deep learning methods and the information theory of speech perception. In order to improve the efficiency of testing of pronunciation quality, we propose to train a convolutional neural network using the best reference utterances from the user. The experimental results proved that the proposed approach is characterized by higher accuracy and word recognition speed for several acoustic models when compared to conventional techniques.
Students' internet usage attracts the attention of many researchers in different countries. Differences in internet penetration in diverse countries lead us to ask about the interaction of medium and culture in this process. In this paper we present an analysis based on a sample of 825 students from 18 Russian universities and discuss findings on particularities of students' ICT usage. On the background of the findings of the study, based on data collected in 2008-2009 year during a project "A сross-cultural study of the new learning culture formation in Germany and Russia", we discuss the problem of plagiarism in Russia, the availability of ICT features in Russian universities and an evaluation of the attractiveness of different categories of ICT usage and gender specifics in the use of ICT.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.