Technological Change, Energy, Environment and Economic Growth in Japan
The given study is devoted to the issues of searching the ways for adaptation to climate change, mitigation of its impact on the economy and population, as well as to the role of increasing energy efficiency in the economies of some countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA). It also relates to the issues of responding to negative trends and emerging challenges caused by climate change. The Report represents several case studies on the above topics implemented in Moldova, Tadjikistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan and the Russian Federation by the network of regional enviuronmental centres. It also contains consideration of possible methodological approaches and recommendations on addressing the above issues in the EECCA region.
The Internet of Things (IoT) provides opportunities to control interconnected smart devices via pre-designed scenarios with littleor no human involvement. Due to the need for systematic improvement of industrial energy efficiency, the relevance of IoT-based energy management systems (EMS) is constantly increasing. Industrial IoT (IIoT)-enhanced EMS are created to support the digital transformation of enterprises. They increase the transparency of energy consumption statistics, enhance the personnel awareness of energy losses, provide predictive analytics tools for forecasting potential industrial accidents and future energy demand. This paper hence provides a system architecture of the energy management assistant that can be used at enterprises to archive the aforementioned aims. Authors identify the relevance of EMS, list the conditions at modern enterprises that define the requirements for the energy management assistant, demonstrate the identified requirements in the UML diagrams. Specification of energy planning and energy monitoring stages demonstrate the possibilities of the designed system architecture. For demonstration purposes, authors present examples of linear and nonlinear regression models implemented to specify energy consumption target functions based on real data. Finally, future research directions and open energy management problems are presented. The analysis has been carried out within the priority area of scientific development established in the National Research University Higher School of Economics - "Research on control methods in Cyber-Physical Systems".
The article systematizes tools of environmental policy in the field of public expenses. It is concluded that the extensive use of the potential of public procurement is necessary to improve environmental characteristics of purchased products.
The article discusses the features of energy service contracts as one of the types of state-business interaction in the form of a publicprivate partnership. The purpose of the article is to analyze the main problems accompanying the implementation of energy service contracts on the basis of a case analysis and to develop recommendations for those who are at the stage of concluding such agreements. The following causes of problems between the parties to the energy service contracts are highlighted: methodological, organizational and financial. The following recommendations are developed based on the experience of participation in forensic examinations:1) careful study of the methodology for calculating savings using energy audit;2) the method of calculating the economic effect should be an integral part of the energy service contract;3)careful management of documents in order to be able to begin to resolve the conflict in the pretrial order according to the Civil Code;4) the contractor must make sure that there are economic benefits based on detailed calculations of indicators such as payback period, net present value of the project, internal rate of return, which it is mandatory to compare with the cost of financial resources used in the project.
Energy consumption of hybrid systems is an actual problem of modern high-performance computing. The trade-off between power consumption and performance becomes more and more prominent. In this paper, we discuss the energy and power efficiency of two modern hybrid minicomputers Jetson TK1 and TX1. We use the Empirical Roofline Tool to obtain peak performance data and the molecular dynamics package LAMMPS as an example of a real-world benchmark. Using the precise wattmeter, we measure Jetsons power consumption profiles. The effectiveness of DVFS is examined as well. We determine the optimal GPU and DRAM frequencies that give the minimum energy-to-solution value.
Sustainability and environmental policies that increasingly target the building sector may explain why a lot of studies presented at Behave 2018 were devoted to understanding and changing behaviour related to energy use and CO2-emissions of buildings. While most research still focusses on the individual energy-relevant behaviour of private citizens,there is a small but growing interest in the decisionsand actions of institutional building-owners and building professionals. Energy feedback, gamification, nudging, promoting acceptance and adoption of new technologies, science-city collaboration, alternative policies and business models were among the solutions discussed to support the energy transition.
Charge-discharge processes of supercapacitor with carbon black KJEC 600/Li in non-aqueous electrolyte: 1 M LiPF6 in a mixture of ethylene carbonate (1/3), diethyl carbonate (1/3), dimethyl carbonate (1/3) are investigated. Galvanostatic cycling was carried out in the range from 1 to 4 V with currents from 100 to 5000 mA/g of carbon black. The maximum discharge capacity of 196 F/g has been reached. The porous structure and hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of carbon black KJEC 600 were investigated by the standard contact porosimetry method (MSCP). The following values were obtained: total specific surface area of 2500 m2/g, total porosity of 7.8 cm3/g, hydrophilic porosity of 4.9 cm3/g, hydrophobic porosity of 2.9 cm3/g. The obtained experimental dependence of the energy efficiency has a maximum (80%) at a current of 250 mA/g. Mathematical modeling of charge-discharge processes of the supercapacitor is developed with taking into account the charging of the double electric layer (EDL) and adsorption of lithium ions according to the Butler-Volmer equation and the Frumkin isotherm for the carbon electrode are taken into account. From the comparison of the calculated and measured charge-discharge curves it follows that these curves are satisfactorily consistent with each other, which indicates the correctness of the model. The density of the exchange current and the specific capacitance of the EDL refereed to the true surface found by the fitting are equal to i0,ad = 2.8 × 10−29A/сm2 and Cdl = 3.5 μF/сm2 respectively.
On the basis of the developed model for different specific currents the energy efficiency dependences on the exchange current density of the adsorption reaction were calculated. Interestingly, these dependencies have a minimum. Based on the model, the profiles of the potential the surface coverage of lithium ions were also calculated.
Improvement of the energy efficiency of a national economy greatly enhances energy security of the state, improves the environment and the quality of life of the population and contributes to the social and economic development of any country. Energy efficiency is often the least expensive means of meeting new energy demand. Governments of countries that contribute to increased investment in activities aimed at improving energy efficiency and implementing a set of government support measures that determine reduction in the energy intensity of GDP of the countries, significantly save budgetary funds, reduce dependence on energy imports and reduce environmental pollution. All that in combination leads to an improvement in the indicators of sustainable development not only of individual territories, but also of the national economy as a whole. Nevertheless, measures to improve energy efficiency still do not have the desired effect on a global scale, despite proven numerous advantages and potentials to be the largest resource to meet the growing demand for energy around the world.Energy service contracts are the actual energy saving instruments which have proved their success in many economically developed countries of the world. In Russia, the market for energy services is in the process of formation and is significantly inhibited by the negative impact from a number of groups of factors.
This book is a comprehensive economic and legal study of the theoretical and practical aspects of the problems of increasing energy efficiency; self-motivation of energy saving by business entities within the framework of their corporate responsibility; regulatory mechanisms to stimulate energy conservation in the economy; civil-law regulation of foreign trade turnover of energy resources between economic entities of the Russian Federation and companies of member states of international integration associations – the CIS, EEMP, the EU and BRICS. It argues that technological energy saving plays a key role in reducing the energy intensity and increasing the energy efficiency of the economy, and substantiates the need for institutional support – including legal support for the participation of the Russian Federation – in various forms of international cooperation. Lastly, based on an analysis of current legislation, programs and recommendations, judicial and contractual practices, customs and trade procedures, it offers proposals for the developing, improving and unifying civil law regulation of obligations in the sphere of international trade in energy resources, as well as methodological recommendations for drafting foreign trade contracts in the energy sector.