Intersectoral linkages: Good shocks, bad outcomes?
The monograph discusses theoretical and practical approaches to economic effectiveness and efficiency of information systems (IS) estimation in Russian economy. First, the book considers modern theoretical results. Firm level empirical tests of IT and IS influence on productivity, such as estimation of computer capital impact on productivity; lagged effects of IT, complementary relations between computer, organization and human capital are of special interest.
The author tested some hypotheses on samples of Russian firms. For example, positive effect of computer capital on productivity was tested on a sample of 200 firms. Complementary relations between computer and organizational capital were investigated on some cases of Russian firms.
Theoretical advances enabled improvement of IT effectiveness estimation in practice. For this author purposes a number of new instruments such as map of organizational practice, extended matrix of change, a set of models for allocating IT costs across IT services within the firm. Existing methodologies of IT economic effectiveness and efficiency analysis are discussed as well.
Author acknowledges Michail Lugachyov, Chief of the Economic faculty IS economics department for consistent support of this research and important comments, Konstantin Zimin for access to unique set of data on IT expenses in Russian firms, Vladimir Ananyin and Pavel Alfyorov for useful discussions.
This paper reports a Foresight exercise, which was carried out to develop a research strategy and a business model for the science park of Ankara University (AU). Science parks have been crucial elements of innovation systems both in developed and developing countries due to their role in bridging the gap between academia and business through knowledge spill-overs and spin-offs. Although there is a widespread consensus about the usefulness of the science park concept, the actual performance of science parks and how well they meet expectations have been controversial. This paper discusses the success factors for science parks. A three dimensional policy framework, which includes ‘complementarity’, ‘networking’ and ‘strategic scalar positioning’ is suggested to be taken into account during the design and operation of science parks. The paper describes the Foresight process and the policies and strategies developed by using the three dimensional policy framework proposed for the newly established science park at Ankara University.
Properties of increasing positively homogeneous functions are studied; in particular, their representations by use of tropical inner products with coefficients chosen from tropical support sets are described. An application to a model of economic complementarityand weak links is developed. It is shown that weak links do not necessary bound total factor productivity from below but in some cases constraint it from above.
The book “Into the Red: The Birth of the Credit Card Market in Postcommunist Russia” by Alya Guseva explores the emergence of the credit card industry in Russia and discusses the demand creation process for absolutely new product. The research is based both on the written sources and on interviews and archival data collected in two series in Moscow (Russia) from 1998 to 1999 and from 2003 to 2005. The author finds out that the socialist legacies shaped the Russian credit card market development. This path-dependence of the Russian market resulted in non-trivial solutions discovered by the market actors trying to cope with uncertainty and complementarity as two critical factors. Social networks play a vital role here as well. Networks joined by consumers and organizations aid to develop markets for mass consumption. The journal “Economic Sociology” publishes the first chapter of the book, “The Architecture of Credit Card Market”, providing with the theoretical foundations for the empirical research. This chapter addresses the problems faced by banks in nascent credit card market. Banks are expected to cope with uncertainty in credit lending, to create consumer demand and at the same time to appeal to merchants. In addition, there is a specific problem generated from cultural factors, including a mistrust of formal institution of money lending. The author briefly considers how the US banks and their Russian counterparts coped with the mentioned challenges.
The book «Into the Red: The Birth of the Credit Card Market in Postcommunist Russia» by Alya Guseva explores the emergence of credit card market in Russia and discusses how the demand for absolutely new product is created. The research is based on interviews and archival data collected in two series in Moscow (Russia): from 1998 to1999 and from 2003 to 2005. The author finds out that the socialist legacies shaped the Russian credit card market development. This path-dependence of the Russian market resulted in non-trivial solutions discovered by the market actors trying to cope with uncertainty and complementarity as two critical factors. Social networks play an important role here as well. The journal «Economic Sociology» publishes the book's first chapter suggesting theoretical foundations for the empirical research.
Into the Red explores the emergence of a credit card market in post-Soviet Russia during the formative period from 1988 to 2007. In her analysis, Alya Guseva locates the dynamics of market building in the social structure, specifically the creative use of social networks. Until now, network scholars have overlooked the role that networks play in facilitating exchange in mass markets because they have exclusively focused on firm-to-firm or person-to-person ties. Into the Reddemonstrates how networks that combine individuals and organizations help to build markets for mass consumption. The book is situated on the cutting edge of emerging interdisciplinary research, linking multiple layers of analysis with institutional evolution. Using an intricate framework, Guseva chronicles both the creation of a credit card market and the making of a mass consumer. These processes are placed in the context of the ongoing restructuring in postcommunist Russia and the expansion of Western markets and ideologies through the rest of the world.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.