A classification of voting procedures in small groups is proposed, based on the information about candidate's orderings obtained from voter's ballots.Descriptions of known from literature voting procedures are given.
The problem of axiomatic and algorithmic constructions of the threshold decision making is studied in the case when individual opinions are given as m-graded strict preferences (with m ≥ 3). It is shown that the only rule satisfying the introduced axioms is the threshold rule. Two explicit algorithms are presented: the ordering algorithm, under which the vector-grades of alternatives are successively written out, and an enumerating social decision function corresponding to the natural order of the weak order equivalence classes.
If you want to make beautiful music,
you must play the black and the white notes together.
Richard M. Nixon, the 37th President of USA
The problem of studying the achievement of consensus in social groups is related to the complexity of organizing such a study, especially for large groups, with more than five participants. In connection with the above, it is advisable to investigate the phenomenon of consensus in large social groups, using the modeling methodology.
The article presents the results of statistical modeling describing the dependence of the time to reach consensus on the number and authoritarianism of a social group members using two mathematical models of consensus achievement in a group based on the model proposed by DeGroot and model of the cellular automaton.
The main problems of attaining consensus under the settings of the proposed model during the development of consensus standards in technical committees on standardization were analyzed. It is shown that an increase in the number of social group members and their authoritarianism has an adverse impact on the time for reaching consensus and increases the disunity of the group.
A model of the cellular automaton modeling the achievement of consensus within the negotiation process has been were studied: the initial discrepancy between the opinions of the members of the group and the space of opinions of the members of the group. In particular, it is shown that if initially the views of the members of the group are radically different, then the process of reaching consensus will be as long as possible if one of the participants is absolutely authoritative. If initially the views of the members of the group are close, then the process of reaching consensus will also be as long as possible if both members of the group are absolutely compromise.
This compilation presents papers on the techniques of building global international university rankings, participation in them of Russian higher education institutions including the winners of 5/100/2020 Federal Project, the positions of national higher education in the international market of educational services. The authors analyze the methodology of ranking higher education institutions, the experience of developing rankings of leading universities in the Post-Soviet area and the BRICS countries. The authors are workers of Russian and foreign universities and research institutions as well as other organizations dealing with the development and analysis of rankings. The book is addressed to instructors, scientific workers, and to everybody interested in international education; global, regional, and national university rankings; the possibilities of enhancing the competitiveness of national higher education institutions. This edition is prepared in the framework of implementation of the Government resolution «On measures of state support of leading universities of the Russian Federation in order to enhance their competitiveness among the leading world scientific and educational centers» (as of 16 March 2013 № 211).