The article considers a problem of statistical production units used in estimation ofgross value added - a key indicator of economic growth and efficiency assessment, and their implementation in statistical practice. Relevance of the problem is stipulated both Ьу the necessity to improve the quality of statistical data, and the leading role of production account that is typical for the Russian national accounts. Author highlights that there’s no statistical unit which could be equally applied in compilation of all the accounts of SNA, because units used for description of distribution and redistribution of income and assets transactions, on one hand, and production of goods and generation of primary incomes, on the other, should bear different properties. With the respect to the recommendations of international organisations it is proposed to use establishment, or local-kind-of-activity unit as a basic statistical unit of production analysis and evaluation. Establishment is a statistical unit with a high homogeneity of output product and localised in one geographical point. Thus introduction of establishment in statistical calculations will foster formation of statistics on the basis of most homogeneous statistical units, and will permit to obtain comparable national and regional estimates at a detailed level of industries. Author with the use of conditional patterns considers impact of statistical units on national and regional indicators of production, as well as on transfer prices of internal flows of enterprises with vertically integrated production structure. As a result author draws a conclusion that application of establishments in national accounts of Russia will permit to exclude divergence in composition of industries of national and regional level and increase the level of their homogeneity. The work on introduction of these statistical units is presently carried out in Rosstat.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.