Noncognitive Development of First Graders and Their Cognitive Performance
One merit of Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) is that apart from a direct school students cognitive appraisal, it enables to collect information on teachers of these students, on their education, work experience and teaching practices. The first difference method was used to determine how teachers characteristics were associated with students achievements and to overcome restrictions of TIMSS correlation design. In addition, effects of teachers characteristics were evaluated by the conventional regressions method. The discovered associations differed across subject areas, and the first difference method results differed from the conventional correlation analysis results. For mathematics the first difference method revealed negative association of reproductive tasks and collaborative learning with achievements, and tasks aimed at comprehension and development of metasubject skills showed positive association. For natural science reproductive tasks showed, on the contrary, positive association, while tasks aimed at comprehension and development of metasubject skills either did not produce any effects, or they were negative. Also, for natural science, unlike mathematics, a teachers experience considerably influenced students achievements.
The analysis of cognitive competence can predict the level of a child’s develop- ment and, thus, can play an important role in their future academic progress. Although the majority of children show comparable cognitive performance for their age, some children significantly outperform their peers of the same age. Based on the Theory of Constructive Operators (TCO), children’s mental attentional capacity (i.e., the number of items that a child can simultaneously manipulate in their mind) normally increases from about 3 units when they enter school to about 7 units when they finish. In this study, we use parametric visual-spatial measures of mental-attentional capacity to examine whether we can iden- tify cognitively gifted children. In contrast to intelligence tests, which are still a popular measure of giftedness, mental-attentional capacity measures do not depend on context knowledge and have already been used in Canada, South America, Europe, and Australia (Arsalidou & Im-Bolter, 2017), supporting the theoretical prediction of mental-attentional capacity development suggested by the TCO (Pascual-Leone, 1970). We report data on more than 750 children in Moscow schools to evaluate whether Russian children follow similar stage-wise increases in mental-attentional capacity and to estimate the percentage of cog- nitively gifted children identified by these measures. Our data show agreement between the performance of Russian children and the theoretical prediction, which supports the cul- ture-fairness of the tasks. The percentage of gifted children varied from 0.22% to 9.44%, de- pending on a measure. The task that showed results closer to the theoretical expectation also reflected the percentage of cognitively gifted children similar to what was reported based on studies in the United States (0.7% to 9.9%; Lupart, & Pyryt, 1996).
The article presents a review of foreign research studies of the possible effects of bilingualism on different aspects of cognitive development of an individual and on the process of the third language acquisition. Such effects are viewed as positive ones by most authors.
The technique of acquaintance of students with the difference in the concepts of "multithreading" and "multitasking" in the form of a play is presented. There are the script, props description, the theoretical material, comments on the production.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.