Background.In both Russia and Greece, corruption is a serious problem. In Greece, the level of corruption is one of the highest in the EU, and in Russia it is one of the highest in the world.
Objective. Three questions were addressed: (1) Are basic human values related to the acceptability of corruption for individuals in both countries? (2) Are these relationships the same in Russia and Greece? (3) Are levels of acceptance of corruption the same in Russia and Greece?
Design. Following S.H. Schwartz’s model, four higher-order values were assessed: Conservation versus Openness to Change, and Self-Transcendence versus Self-Enhancement. The studies were conducted in Russia (N = 256) and Greece (N = 469). To analyze the associations of individual values with the acceptability of corruption, we constructed a multigroup regression model using structural equation modelling software.
Results. Identical relationships were found in the two countries.Conservation values and Self-Transcendencewere negatively related to the acceptability of corruption, whereas Self-Enhancementwas positively related to the acceptability of corruption.Russians scored higher on acceptance of corruption. Implications are discussed.
Conclusion. The acceptability of corruption seems to be interrelated with basic human values across different cultural conditions. Our study shows that the relationships between higher-order values on the one hand, measured in the framework of Schwartz’s values model, and the acceptability of corruption on the other, are identical in Russia and Greece, suggesting that the acceptability of corruption is related to personal values.
Two approaches have dominated research on human value preferences during the last decades, namely the ones associated with the names Ronald Inglehart and Shalom Schwartz. Up to now, neither of these approaches has bothered much about how value preferences develop across the lifespan. Both Inglehart and Schwartz implicitly or explicitly seem to assume that in general terms value preferences of people are more or less stable from when individuals become of age. The current study explores the intraindividual development of value preferences among individuals from (late) adolescence to their mid-forties.
Values are one of the most important determinants of human behavior, including creative behavior. This work is based on the view that a common predisposition to innovation can be influenced by the individual values. The participants of the research were 380 people - representatives of young (under 25) and adult generations (above 45 years). The study revealed that values "Humility", "Conformity Rules", "Security", "Tradition" form the basis of interpersonal behavior in collectivist cultures and may prevent the adoption of innovations among the adult generation of Russians. The values of "Self-Direction Thought", "Stimulation", "Achievement", "Power Dominance ", "Power Resources" stimulates the adoption and implementation of innovations among Russian youth.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.