Evolutionary Justification of Plagiarism
The article examines the ways and forms of possible influence of teachings of Philolaus on the philosophy of Plato. At the beginning, there is a historiographic review of the reports on the adoption by Plato of a number of ideas from Pythagorean sources. It turns out that the popular story about Plato's plagiarism is very ambiguous, and it was "pulled out of the closet" every time in connection with certain ideological or even commercial needs. The most active "orthodox Pythagoreanism" was attributed to Plato in the 1st century BC. - 1 century. AD, when dozens of pseudo-Pythagorean fakes appear, "proving" the continuity of Plato's texts in relation to the Pythagorean ones, including texts signed by Philolaus. This must be taken into account when determining the authenticity of the Philolaus' fragments.
The problem of plagiarism is actively being discussed in academic and administrative circles. However, a similar sounding phenomenon of self-plagiarism has not achieved the proper disclosure, although it is widespread in the scientific community(both global and domestic). In this article we will attempt to examine the nature of self-plagiarism, identify the reasons behind its existence, and describe ways to deal with it.
This article rises the problem of authenticity ot the works by students and the comprehension of acceptable quoting by both students and teachers. All examples are shown from one typical essay that has successfully passed "Antiplagiat" verification
The purpose of this book is to teach students how to write extended essays in English. It is supplementary to the British course book ‘English for Academic Study: Extended Writing and Research Skills’ (Garnet Publishing Ltd.). It was designed for students , teachers and those who are interested in obtaining the skill of extended essay writing.
Today we could admit the growing demand for high educated experts, but modern technologies provide not only new learning opportunities, but also enormous amount Web-resources to plagiarize. In this paper we try to investigate role of intrinsic motivation on attitude towards plagiarism. Some results received during a project “A cross-cultural study of a new learning culture in Germany and in Russia” concerned intrinsic motivation of ITstudents and attitude to plagiarize are discussed. Analysis showed absence of significant differences in intrinsic motivation and significantly more tolerance of Russian students to plagiarism. We presented analysis of reasons for plagiarism and probable ways to solve with this problem in educational practice.
Pavel V. Sokolov’s “Lucis an caliginis theatrum: Theatrical Metaphors in the Early Modern historia literaria” is another one of those essays in this volume which remind readers of the frequently forgotten fact that the metaphor at issue here is present in non-theatrical texts also. Sokolov makes the striking observation that there is an intense discussion of the problem of plagiarism in an age without copyright regulations. The intricacies involved in the question of what is an “original” and what is a (perhaps plagiarized) “copy” were highlighted in contemporary treatises by drawing on the resources offered by theatrical metaphors, especially on one specific semantic strand inherent to this metaphorical complex, namely, the difficulty to decide between what is “real” action and what is (only) an imitation of real action.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.