Situatedness of action and cognition makes some social theorists address to situation as a source of explanation of human behavior. However, situations themselves remain unexplained. For sociology, it is necessary to explain why and which situations appear in life and influence behavior. To make situational analysis sociologically relevant, we pay attention to task-solving situations. Here we define situations as opposing to actions (task solving) and not to actors. Task-solving is a kind of discrete and specific activity that can be referred to social functions at the societal level. A sociological study of task-solving situations implies task localization and decomposition of activities, analysis of situation structure, and description of situations and their structural features distribution. We illustrate this situational approach with an example in the sociology of science.
The mass transfer during the nanowire formation by the metal electrodeposition into the pores with a high aspect ratio from a binary electrolyte is studied theoretically. The application of quasi-steady-state approximation is justified. The equations for the ion concentration and electric potential at the bottom and in the mouth of the pores, the reaction overpotential, and the variation of the current density with time are obtained. The problem of time dependence of unfilled pore part length is solved numerically. The distinctions between the results obtained under the potentiostatic and galvanostatic conditions are demonstrated.
Relevance. Rapid development of telemedicine and e-health requires free, legitimate and secure health information exchange. Besides technical solutions an important role in providing health information exchange played by legal and organizational measures. Adoption of the new legislation on the application of information technologies in healthcare increases the relevance of legal issues in this sphere.
Objective. The article addresses the legal aspects of building health information systems, taking into account the rights and legitimate interests of all stakeholders (patients, physicians, healthcare providers, insurance companies, research organizations, etc.).
The main results. In the paper it is reasoned that the architecture of health information systems should be based on principles of centralized storage of data, integration of data from the wide range of sources, increasing usability of the systems, ensuring data dynamism and mobility as well as enhancing the role of patients in management of personal health records.
Also particular attention is paid to security issues of health information systems. The information security measures for such systems include reliable procedures for identification and authorization of subjects, differentiation of access rights to health records, encryption of health data and depersonalization of health data of individual patients. These and other measures will help to ensure the legitimacy of electronic document exchange, as well as to increase the level of patients trust to information technologies used in healthcare.
Applicability and scientific significance. The principles and ideas reflected in the article can be used in law-making process in the area of telemedicine and serve as a basis for the subsequent academic research on the electronic document exchange in the new technological conditions.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.