### Working paper

## Lorentzian Kac-Moody algebras with Weyl groups of 2-reflections

algebra $\hat{sl}_n$. We introduce an affine, reduced, irreducible, normal quiver variety $Z$ which maps to the Zastava space bijectively at the level of complex points. The natural Poisson structure on the Zastava space can be described on $Z$ in terms of Hamiltonian reduction of a certain Poisson subvariety of the dual space of a (nonsemisimple) Lie algebra. The quantum Hamiltonian reduction of the corresponding quotient of its universal enveloping algebra produces a quantization $Y$ of the coordinate ring of $Z$. The same quantization was obtained in the finite (as opposed to the affine) case generically in arXiv:math/0409031. We prove that, for generic values of quantization parameters, $Y$ is a quotient of the affine Borel Yangian.

This proceedings publication is a compilation of selected contributions from the “Third International Conference on the Dynamics of Information Systems” which took place at the University of Florida, Gainesville, February 16–18, 2011. The purpose of this conference was to bring together scientists and engineers from industry, government, and academia in order to exchange new discoveries and results in a broad range of topics relevant to the theory and practice of dynamics of information systems. Dynamics of Information Systems: Mathematical Foundation presents state-of-the art research and is intended for graduate students and researchers interested in some of the most recent discoveries in information theory and dynamical systems. Scientists in other disciplines may also benefit from the applications of new developments to their own area of study.

Using the DAHA-Fourier transform of q-Hermite polynomials multiplied by level-one theta functions, we obtain expansions of products of any number of such theta functions in terms of the q-Hermite polynomials. An ample family of modular functions satisfying Rogers-Ramanujan type identities for arbitrary (reduced, twisted) affine root systems is obtained as an application. A relation to Rogers dilogarithm and Nahm's conjecture is discussed. The q-Hermite polynomials are closely related to the Demazure level-one characters in the twisted case (Sanderson, Ion), which connects our formulas to tensor products of level-one integrable Kac-Moody modules, their coset theory and the level-rank duality. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

We describe a new large class of Lorentzian Kac--Moody algebras. For all ranks, we classify 2-reflective hyperbolic lattices $S$ with the group of 2-reflections of finite volume and with a lattice Weyl vector. They define the corresponding hyperbolic Kac--Moody algebras of restricted arithmetic type which are graded by S. For most of them, we construct Lorentzian Kac--Moody algebras which give their automorphic corrections: they are graded by the S, have the same simple real roots, but their denominator identities are given by automorphic forms with 2-reflective divisors. We give exact constructions of these automorphic forms as Borcherds products and, in some cases, as additive Jacobi liftings.

A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.

Let k be a field of characteristic zero, let G be a connected reductive algebraic group over k and let g be its Lie algebra. Let k(G), respectively, k(g), be the field of k- rational functions on G, respectively, g. The conjugation action of G on itself induces the adjoint action of G on g. We investigate the question whether or not the field extensions k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G are purely transcendental. We show that the answer is the same for k(G)/k(G)^G and k(g)/k(g)^G, and reduce the problem to the case where G is simple. For simple groups we show that the answer is positive if G is split of type A_n or C_n, and negative for groups of other types, except possibly G_2. A key ingredient in the proof of the negative result is a recent formula for the unramified Brauer group of a homogeneous space with connected stabilizers. As a byproduct of our investigation we give an affirmative answer to a question of Grothendieck about the existence of a rational section of the categorical quotient morphism for the conjugating action of G on itself.

Let G be a connected semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field k. In 1965 Steinberg proved that if G is simply connected, then in G there exists a closed irreducible cross-section of the set of closures of regular conjugacy classes. We prove that in arbitrary G such a cross-section exists if and only if the universal covering isogeny Ĝ → G is bijective; this answers Grothendieck's question cited in the epigraph. In particular, for char k = 0, the converse to Steinberg's theorem holds. The existence of a cross-section in G implies, at least for char k = 0, that the algebra k[G]G of class functions on G is generated by rk G elements. We describe, for arbitrary G, a minimal generating set of k[G]G and that of the representation ring of G and answer two Grothendieck's questions on constructing generating sets of k[G]G. We prove the existence of a rational (i.e., local) section of the quotient morphism for arbitrary G and the existence of a rational cross-section in G (for char k = 0, this has been proved earlier); this answers the other question cited in the epigraph. We also prove that the existence of a rational section is equivalent to the existence of a rational W-equivariant map T- - - >G/T where T is a maximal torus of G and W the Weyl group.