This paper compares the forecasting performance of random walk, frequentist vector autoregression (VAR), and Bayesian vector autoregression with Minnesota prior (BVAR) models on quarterly Russian data sample running from 1995 to 2014. Maximal number of variables included in the model is equal to 14 that requires an endogenous search of optimal shrinkage hyperparameter. The search procedure follows [Bańbura et al., 2010] and [Bloor and Matheson, 2011]. According to the selection method the shrinkage hyperparameter equates the forecasting quality of the frequentist VAR and BVAR for the minimal considered dimension of the model (three variables). For any dimension of the BVAR model the optimal shrinkage hyperparameter is robust to considered functions of relative forecasting accuracy.
We show that the BVAR provides a more accurate forecast than the frequentist VAR on the studied sample. For key macro indicators (the industrial production index, consumer price index and the interbank interest rate), forecasting horizons, and all model sizes, the mean squared error of the BVAR is lower than that of the frequentist VAR. Moreover, the results show that the forecast made using the BVAR is more precise than the forecast made using random walk model for the CPI and using white noise model for the interbank rate. However, the BVAR cannot beat the random walk while forecasting the industrial production index.
The work is dedicated to VaR models, estimated on the equities quotes of the six European countries. The time series cover three economic periods - pre crisis, crisis and post crisis, where the crisis period is the financial crunch of the 2008 year. The volatility estimation is based on the four APARCH(1,1) models and six distribution functions. The results of the investigation show the connection of the model with country's economic development and its financial condition at the different periods of time.
The paper aims at finding the most accurate VaR model for the four most liquid Russian stocks. Among the possible VaR modeling techniques, the estimates considered in this work are based on GARCH models with six different distributions. A back testing analysis is performed to evaluate the accuracy of the alternative models and to find the worst predictable period in terms of the volatility behavior.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.