The focus of the study is the relationship between personality development and mechanisms of self-reflection and inner dialogue. Our understanding is based on J. Loevinger’s (1976) theory of ego development stages and D. Leontiev’s (2009) differential self-reflection model. 262 participants of student summer school in Russia (age from 14 to 25 (M=20.03, SD=3.92) were tested on a battery of measurement scales, including: (1). Modified P. Oles’ Inner Dialogical Activity Scale; (2). Differential Self-Reflection Inventory; (3). Russian version of J. Loevinger’s Washington University Sentence Completion Test. Systemic reflection and Openness to experience showed significant linear dependencies on Ego Development level. Systemic reflection manifested as a partial mediator of the link between Openness to experience and level of Ego development. The contribution of inner dialogue became visible from the Stage E5 (Selfawareness) on, while below this level self-reflection mechanisms were neither differentiated nor associated with inner dialogical activity.
The article aims to comprehend the situation and the humanitarian consequences of the ongoing radical transformation of the entire way of life caused by digitalization. The focus is on the challenge facing human subjectivity. The results of modern neurophysiological research show that self-awareness (as the highest level and essence of subjectivity) is formed as a result of socialization which is accompanied by communication in a narratological format. This makes it possible to clarify the content of such concepts as consciousness, self-awareness, freedom, as well as to identify the role of responsibility in the formation of the corresponding phenomena. Analysis shows that mastering the first-person narration of experience plays a key role in shaping responsibility/freedom. The narrative approach turns out to be important both in the analysis of the phenomenology of consciousness and in the analysis of the historical evolution of mankind. It is this circumstance that is crucial in understanding the prospects for homo digitalis. The modern «mega-machine» civilization synthesizes the living and non-living, the biological and mechanical into a single digital ecosystem. This ecosystem displaces not only the natural world but also its perception, the very experience of going through some experience «in the first person». The volumes of information and the speed of its transmission and processing leave no room for reflection. A person is required to provide not comprehension and reasoning but a «correct» reaction, the activation of options that launch the given algorithms. It is actually about a transition to signal communication and «new animality». Homo digitalis becomes not an independent part of this system but its option: a tool and a product. The article provides generalization of the horizon of such prospects: both the loss of subjectivity in digital codes and its being in demand. The analysis performed allows us to outline the content of humanitarian expertise not only of the consequences of digital technologies but also of their development and implementation.
A sample of 509 individuals aged from 14 to 53 was tested for different measures of personality self-regulation, i.e. operational (V.I. Morosanova’s approach) and dispositional (D.A. Leontiev’s approach), as well as for ego development level (J. Loevinger’s approach). The results demonstrate that the lower level of ego development tends to be, the closer different types of self-regulation were manifested. By contrast, at the higher levels of ego development the trajectories of the two self-regulation types were dispersed.
The research of reflective processes and personality development was conducted with participation of 259 respondents aged from 14 to 25. We measured the ego development level, different facets of reflectiveness and the Big Five traits. The data demonstrates the significant linear dependencies between the forms of reflectiveness and the ego development levels.
Four issues are discussed: (1) differences between cognition and emotion; (2) affect, emotion, and motivation differentials, including a neuropsychological model of motivation; (3) mental attention (working memory) as a resource neither affective nor cognitive, but applicable to both; and (4) explication of neuropsychological scheme units, which have neuronal circuits as functional infrastructure, thus helping to clarify the semantics of functional connectivity. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015.
The article presents the results of the study of ontogenetic aspects of ego in personal relation to the life oppositions. These aspects are unconscious in themselves. The ego is the source of the individual relationships. The early stages of its genesis determine the specificity of personal relationship to the Self in adulthood. The idea of Ego arises from the need of an infant to cope with the opposition appearing in its life at the moment of birth (tension - relaxation, wakefulness - sleep, "my" - "other") is the basis of the work. It is stated that Ego develops while operating with complicated oppositions of life, fixes "successful" operations with them in the form of defensive processes and unconsciously uses the same action with the opposition in solving cognitive tasks. The article grounds the theoretical connections between personal operations with oppositions, defensive processes and the type of adaptation. The methodology of empirical study of these connections is offered.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.