The focus of the study is the relationship between personality development and mechanisms of self-reflection and inner dialogue. Our understanding is based on J. Loevinger’s (1976) theory of ego development stages and D. Leontiev’s (2009) differential self-reflection model. 262 participants of student summer school in Russia (age from 14 to 25 (M=20.03, SD=3.92) were tested on a battery of measurement scales, including: (1). Modified P. Oles’ Inner Dialogical Activity Scale; (2). Differential Self-Reflection Inventory; (3). Russian version of J. Loevinger’s Washington University Sentence Completion Test. Systemic reflection and Openness to experience showed significant linear dependencies on Ego Development level. Systemic reflection manifested as a partial mediator of the link between Openness to experience and level of Ego development. The contribution of inner dialogue became visible from the Stage E5 (Selfawareness) on, while below this level self-reflection mechanisms were neither differentiated nor associated with inner dialogical activity.
The article presents the results of the study of ontogenetic aspects of ego in personal relation to the life oppositions. These aspects are unconscious in themselves. The ego is the source of the individual relationships. The early stages of its genesis determine the specificity of personal relationship to the Self in adulthood. The idea of Ego arises from the need of an infant to cope with the opposition appearing in its life at the moment of birth (tension - relaxation, wakefulness - sleep, "my" - "other") is the basis of the work. It is stated that Ego develops while operating with complicated oppositions of life, fixes "successful" operations with them in the form of defensive processes and unconsciously uses the same action with the opposition in solving cognitive tasks. The article grounds the theoretical connections between personal operations with oppositions, defensive processes and the type of adaptation. The methodology of empirical study of these connections is offered.
A sample of 509 individuals aged from 14 to 53 was tested for different measures of personality self-regulation, i.e. operational (V.I. Morosanova’s approach) and dispositional (D.A. Leontiev’s approach), as well as for ego development level (J. Loevinger’s approach). The results demonstrate that the lower level of ego development tends to be, the closer different types of self-regulation were manifested. By contrast, at the higher levels of ego development the trajectories of the two self-regulation types were dispersed.
The research of reflective processes and personality development was conducted with participation of 259 respondents aged from 14 to 25. We measured the ego development level, different facets of reflectiveness and the Big Five traits. The data demonstrates the significant linear dependencies between the forms of reflectiveness and the ego development levels.
Four issues are discussed: (1) differences between cognition and emotion; (2) affect, emotion, and motivation differentials, including a neuropsychological model of motivation; (3) mental attention (working memory) as a resource neither affective nor cognitive, but applicable to both; and (4) explication of neuropsychological scheme units, which have neuronal circuits as functional infrastructure, thus helping to clarify the semantics of functional connectivity. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015.
The article identifies the main features of the Russian writer Andrei Platonov’s (1899–1951) comprehension of the anthropological consequences of the radical social transformation during the years of the “Great Turn,” or “Great Break” (i.e., the years of Stalin’s reforms that started in 1929). Platonov’s evaluation is unique in its scale and depth. He was among the first authors to draw attention to the typological commonness of Soviet and German totalitarianisms. Their similarities are not only rooted in the design of the respective regimes. Vice versa, the design itself is generated by the possibilities of inhuman rationalistic activism in mass society. Platonov’s texts written in 1929–1934 were devoted, rather than to mass collectivism or political and socio-cultural reorganization, to anthropology and the possibility of reorganizing man, together with his cosmos. The main idea of these literary works is search for a universal way of human existence in general, including the living and the dead. In these texts, Platonov deeply conceived and felt the complete emptiness and inhumanity of doctrinaire rationalistic activism, when it is accepted as a practical maxim for the universal human will. This body of texts does not represent a dystopian view of a possible future, yet it relates the shock of an encounter with an unexpectedly ambiguous future and the author’s longing and suffering in his attempts to understand it. Such attempts lead to the need for a new anthropodicy as a justification for a human existence, notwithstanding man’s limitations and finiteness. In this respect, the results of Platonov’s reflections are extremely relevant in relation to the analysis of humanitarian factors and the consequences of currently ongoing digitalization of practically all spheres of life, as well as in terms of searching for new foundations of human life under these conditions. Platonov’s works turn out to be more relevant than the alarmism of the philosophers of the Frankfurt School of Critical Theory and than the contemporary demonization by the conceptions of digital posthumanity and transhumanism. Platonov’s relevance is due to the depth of the topics and problems he raised, and their meaning is just beginning to be revealed today.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.