Structure of social attitudes to science and technology: national and individual determinants
SCIENCE IN MODERN SOCIETY: PATTERNS AND TRENDS OF DEVELOPMENT Orenburg, November 10, 2017
Does the relationship between economic well-being of citizens and support for the welfare state institutions vary across the European Union member countries? To test a hypothesis about the differentiated effect of economic well-being we use multilevel regression modeling. Peculiarities of social cleavages and welfare models in the EU countries explain differences both in type and in degree of the relationship.
The authors estimate contribution of different factors in reading skills of 15?year-olds by using four models of multilevel regression analysis. It turned out that the most significant factor is family background — not only at the individual level, but at the school level as well (average school socio-economic status of schoolchildren families effects average reading skills). At the school level the aggregated family characteristics of students affect individual achievements, and this effect surpasses an effect of school resources and localization of schools — those school factors that show a significant contribution to achievement. Attitudes toward reading and learning are significant at the individual level, but at the school level children’s attitudes toward reading and school don’t make an independent contribution to the individual results.
Collection of reports of the 5th International Multidisciplinary Scientific Conference on Social Sciences and Arts, devoted to topical issues of Sociology and Healthcare
In this study a multi-level modeling approach is used to examine predictors of the subjective sense of freedom both at the individual level and at the country level, as well as the between-level interaction effects. It has been established that relationship between postmaterialist priorities and the subjective sense of freedom differ depending on the countries’ degree of economic development. In more affluent countries subjective freedom is positively associated with postmaterialist priorities, while in less affluent countries this association is negative.
The consequentialist approach to defining legitimacy became widespread at the end of the 20th century. According to this interpretation the successful economic policy maintains citizens’ support for political regime. This article represents an empirical analysis of the relationship between political regime legitimacy and citizens’ economic welfare. The analysis is based on cross-sectional data (44 countries, 2008). Besides, in this research we take into account the multilevel (hierarchical) data structure. We conclude that there is a positive relationship between subjective economic welfare and subjective legitimacy.
The paper presents the results of a comparative cross-cultural research on belief in one’s country being better than most other countries. The research findings demonstrate that the strong belief in preeminence prevails over disbelief in most, but not all countries. Belief in preeminence of one’s country was found to be the strongest in the most and the least economically advanced countries, due to the objective recognition of the state of affairs and to the defensive psychological reaction respectively. The countrieds in between enjoy the least favorable opinion in their populations, which constitutes yet another dimension of the middle income trap
Suhadolets T.V. (Editor-in-Chief), Garwin I., Valdwell H., Nenrik Y., Forvits H., Thowe I., Zhansugurov I., Mazur V.V., Kovylkino D.Y., Kemalov A.F., Kemalov R.A., Abdullayev A.T., Kolomyts O.N., Bagiyan A.Y., Apsalikov K.N., Dergunov D.V., Abduvahabova M.A., Ermakov L.I., Palgova Z.Y., Nyyazbekova K.S., Berezhnaya V.I., Suleimenov E.N., Utelbaeva A.B., Utelbaev B.T., Zhukov Yu, Shubin O.S., Dudenkova N.A., Kotelnikov E.V., Sukhovskaya D.N., Goncharova E.H., Lobanov D.V., Shubin O.S., Melnikova N.A., Liferenko O.A., Bardin V.S., King J.V., Bednarzhevskii S.S., Zakirullin R.S., Magomedov A.N.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.