Компьютерное моделирование движения космического аппарата в окрестности точки либрации L2 системы Солнце-Земля
A procedure has been proposed for calculating limited orbits around the L2 libration points of the Sun–Earth system. The motion of a spacecraft in the vicinity of the libration point has been considered a superposition of three components, i.e., decreasing (stable), increasing (unstable), and limited. The proposed procedure makes it possible to correct the state vector of the spacecraft so as to neutralize the unstable component of the motion. Using this procedure, the calculation of orbits around various types of libration points has been carried out and the dependence on the orbit type on the initial conditions has been studied.
The following topics were dealt with: human/computer interfaces; texture, depth and motor perception; neural nets; fuzzy systems; learning; product/process design; simulation; robotics; visual system cybernetics; batch processes; image compression and interpretation; AI applications; fuzzy adaptive control; decision modelling; agile manufacturing; service sector; inductive algorithms; complex systems; Petri nets; real time imaging; KBS; machine recognition; requirements engineering; inspection and shop floor control; environmental decision making; medicine; supervisory control; discrete event systems; power systems; software methods; heuristic search; vision systems; database systems; information modelling; facility design and material handling; conflict resolution; emergency management; genetic algorithms; decision making and path planning; IVHS; senses approximation; intelligent user interface; robust controllers for mechanical systems; cognitive and learning systems; command and control systems; pilot associate systems; neural net applications; real time systems; mobile robot visual processes; medical applications; utility energy systems; machine recognition; computing systems design; software engineering; military applications; data analysis; stochastic processes; guided vehicles; and stability and compensation.
International collaboration will be necessary for a viable program of exploration beyond the Moon, similar to that for the ISS, and reusable spacecraft will also be needed. High-energy Earth orbits that can be drastically modified with lunar swingbys and small propulsive maneuvers are used, especially near the collinear Sun-Earth and Earth-Moon libration points. The first human missions beyond low-Earth orbit may go to the vicinity of the translunar Earth-Moon libration point. This paper will concentrate on the next possible step, the first one into interplanetary space, that could be a one-year return mission to fly by a Near-Earth Object (NEO). Details are presented of a trajectory that leaves a halo orbit about the Earth-Moon L2 libration point, then uses three lunar swingbys and relatively small propulsive maneuvers to fly by the asteroid 1994 XL1, and return to the Earth-Moon L2 halo orbit for a ΔV of only 432 m/s. Next, rendezvous missions to some other NEO's will be presented. Finally, trajectories to reach Mars, first to Phobos or Deimos, will be outlined. The study uses highly-elliptical Earth orbits (HEOs) whose line of apsides can be rotated using lunar swingbys. The HEO provides a convenient and relatively fast location for rendezvous with crew, or to add propulsion or cargo modules, a technique that we call "Phasing Orbit Rendezvous".
The results concern roll pass design for rolling a round bar of a 20mm diameter from a 55mm diameter input. Concerning materials, this roll pass design must cover a wide range of steels, from low-carbon micro-alloyed steels to stainless steels. The roll pass design proposal takes into consideration lower plasticity of certain steels. The comparison was enabled by suggesting two roll pass designs. The classical oval-round roll pass design, where the maximum extension coefficient is set to 1.55 in oval and 1.22 in round grooves. The second roll pass design uses a combination of smooth part of the roll (curves) and round roll passes. Distribution of the extension coefficient in individual passes is similar to that of oval-round series. The paper also compares values of energy-force parameters calculated analytically using the method of finite elements. If we compare the distribution of temperature, stress and size of the grain, it is proved that the oval-round roll pass designs are the best as far as the balanced distribution of the above-mentioned values is concerned. The roll pas design combining smooth part of the roll with a round part does not achieve such balance. However, its advantage lies in far lower requirement for the needed length of the working part of the roll. Five passes are carried out on the smooth part of the roll, which considerably cuts down the required length of the roll body. Therefore it is this variant that will be used in the laboratory of wire rolling created within the project RMSTC.
This paper presents a study on the features and characteristics of the Lissajous orbit family around libration point L2 of the Earth-Moon system which allow optimization in terms of improving the communication between an orbiting spacecraft and the Earth.
Mathematical and computer simulation of economic processes.
Several missions are planned in Russia to launch spacecraft into the vicinity of the Solar-Terrestrial collinear libration points. The first of them is Spectr-Roentgen-Gamma intended to explore the sky in X-ray and Gamma-ray band. There are technical constraints on this project’s realization, influencing the scenario of inserting the spacecraft into the operational orbit. One of these constraints is the location of the available ground station.
Due to the high latitude of Russian stations it is impossible to have visibility of the spacecraft from them during those phases of flight when the spacecraft is well below the ecliptic plane. To avoid this phenomenon, it is necessary to decrease the orbit amplitude in the direction orthogonal to the ecliptic plane. There are several methods how to do this including one with gravity assist maneuvers near Moon or use of the rocket engine for correction maneuvers, but the simplest – the search of an appropriate option within the family of possible transfer trajectories.
In the paper all these approaches are analyzed and it is shown that for standard scenario for them some difficulties do exist leading to the decrease the reliability of mission at large. The reason is that the thrust of the spacecraft rocket engines is too low, leading to burn durations that are too long.
For more practical approach, it is proposed to use the upper stage of the launcher for the maneuvers intended to decrease the amplitude of the orbit in the ecliptic pole direction. This leads to increasing the duration of spacecraft visibility to an acceptable level for the ground stations situated on the Russian territory. But the most promising and effective option is a single impulse trajectory with an optimal choice of the initial orbital state vector.
Also the problem of reaching the maximum amplitude of the orbit normal to the ecliptic, the “Z-amplitude”, is considered. This goal is to be reached for another project -Millimetron. This project goal is to build a space interferometer with very long base consisting of two telescopes: one in space near the [Sun-Earth L2] libration point and the other on the Earth’s surface.
It is shown that it is possible to put the spacecraft into an orbit with a Z-amplitude value of more than one million kilometers, practically with the same velocity impulse as for orbits with several times less Z-amplitude. The proposed method for this is the appropriate choice of the perigee position of the transfer orbit.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.