Social Exclusion Risk: Ratings of Russian Regions.
The concept of social exclusion is currently regarded by researchers in social sciences as a multi-dimensional phenomenon which covers a number of interrelated aspects at a time. It normally involves exclusion from economic life, social services, public life and social networks. In 2010, the European Union adopted “Strategy for Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Growth” for the period until 2020 which identified clear and quantifiable parameters for reducing the number of the socially excluded in the EU countries. However, no consensus is yet reached at the international level as to the definition of the concept of social exclusion as to the methodology to measure it. The European Union, World Bank, OECD and UN agencies are still using different indicators for assessing poverty, deprivation and social exclusion. In the Russian Federation, the category of social exclusion is rather a theoretical concept than a specific instrument for transforming and implementing social policies. Most Russian studies are discussing the problems of measuring social exclusion at the national level or among specific socially vulnerable population groups. Meanwhile there are now studies concerning spatial dimension of the level of social exclusion of the population of Russian regions. This study is designed to fill this existing gap.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.
The article deals with the gender and class aspects of mechanisms of exclusion and barriers to access to public services for migrants from former Soviet national republics in contemporary Russia, with a focus on Armenian women's practices of using the healthcare and pre-school care services. The author analyzes institutional and cultural barriers to access to services. Institutional barriers are created by legal status of migrants. The absence of citizenship presents a constraint on obtaining public medical services. Use of pre-school care services (kindergarten) contradicts the gender culture shared by Armenian women. These cultural barriers are discussed in the context of migrants' gender culture. Gender culture is conceptualized through the concept of the gender paradigm as a main cultural code providing meaning to women's everyday practices. For Armenian women the gender paradigm is described as patriarchy. Social exclusion and strategies of coping with the patriarchy also have the class dimension. Institutional barriers are overcome using economic and social resources of migrants. The norms of patriarchal gender culture are interpreted pragmatically and are less rigid among educated classes.
Risk-management and financial management are going to become the main components of corporate economic governance, for all the existing theories of financial management consist both of financial analysis, planning, and the allowance of the implied volatile of further incomes and costs. According to the methodology of a systematic analysis, ERM system must be presented as a multi-level system, which involves all employees in the process of risk management. The process of risk identification is in the focus of implementation ERM system. Classification should be matching the theoretical requirements of organization management and be externally and internally balanced.
Presenting the findings of a major research project, this volume investigates the regional, ethnic and socio-cultural aspects of poverty and social exclusion in Russia in recent years. In-depth household interviews and survey data allowed teams from the UK, Denmark and Russia to compare different societies and communities in Russia across several different themes: the definition of poverty in different regional, ethnic and socio-cultural settings; the reproduction and formation of poverty subcultures in different societies and communities; the ethnic/national and political values of poor people; the readiness of poor people for social protest; and a comparison of Russia with other EU countries. Offering a wealth of original data collected following a period of rapid impoverishment of the Russian population, the study considers the challenge this presents to Western European models of poverty and social exclusion.