On the macroscopic quantization in mesoscopic rings and single-electron devices
The article presents the possible role of consciousness in quantum-mechanical description of physical reality. The widely spread interpretations of quantum phenomena are considered as indicating the apparent connection between conscious processes (such as observation) and the properties of the microcosm. The reasons for discrepancies between the results of observations of the microcosm and macrocosm and the potential association of consciousness with these reasons are closely investigated. The mentioned connection is meant to be interpreted in the sense that the probable requirement for a complete understanding of quantum theory is the adequate description of consciousness within it and that the correct theory of consciousness should include quantum-mechanical theoretical apparatus. In this context, the question about the methods of scientific cognition is discussed, in particular, the problem of the place and the importance of intellectual intuition in science and philosophy of science. The author draws the conclusiions about the current state of the “measuring” problem in its relationship with consciousness.
We investigate fluctuations of persistent current (PC) in nanorings both with and without dissipation and decoherence. We demonstrate that such PC fluctuations may persist down to zero temperature provided there exists either interaction with an external environment or an external (periodic) potential produced, e.g., by quantum phase slips in superconducting nanorings. Provided quantum coherence is maintained in the system PC noise remains coherent and can be tuned by an external magnetic flux piercing the ring. If quantum coherence gets suppressed by interactions with a dissipative bath PC noise becomes incoherent and independent.
We investigate the effect of interacting quantum phase slips on persistent current and its fluctuations in ultrathin superconducting nanowires and nanorings pierced by the external magnetic flux. We derive the effective action for these systems and map the original problem onto an effective sine-Gordon theory on torus. We evaluate both the flux dependent persistent current and the critical radius of the ring beyond which this current gets exponentially suppressed by quantum fluctuations. We also analyze fluctuations of persistent current caused by quantum phase slips. At low temperatures the supercurrent noise spectrum has the form of coherent peaks which can be tuned by the magnetic flux. Experimental observation of these peaks can directly demonstrate the existence of plasma modes in superconducting nanorings.
The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.
By using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, we investigated anisotropic high-field (H less than or similar to 7T) low-temperature (10 K) magnetization response of inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films grown by rf sputtering deposition on Sitall (TiO2) glass substrates. In the grown FeNi films, the FeNi layer nominal thickness varied from 0.6 to 2.5 nm, across the percolation transition at the d(c) similar or equal to 1.8 nm. We discovered that, beyond conventional spin-magnetism of Fe21Ni79 permalloy, the extracted out-of-plane magnetization response of the nanoisland FeNi films is not saturated in the range of investigated magnetic fields and exhibits paramagnetic-like behavior. We found that the anomalous out-of-plane magnetization response exhibits an escalating slope with increase in the nominal film thickness from 0.6 to 1.1 nm, however, it decreases with further increase in the film thickness, and then practically vanishes on approaching the FeNi film percolation threshold. At the same time, the in-plane response demonstrates saturation behavior above 1.5-2T, competing with anomalously large diamagnetic-like response, which becomes pronounced at high magnetic fields. It is possible that the supported-metal interaction leads to the creation of a thin charge-transfer (CT) layer and a Schottky barrier at the FeNi film/Sitall (TiO2) interface. Then, in the system with nanoscale circular domains, the observed anomalous paramagnetic-like magnetization response can be associated with a large orbital moment of the localized electrons. In addition, the inhomogeneous nanoisland FeNi films can possess spontaneous ordering of toroidal moments, which can be either of orbital or spin origin. The system with toroidal inhomogeneity can lead to anomalously strong diamagnetic-like response. The observed magnetization response is determined by the interplay between the paramagnetic-and diamagnetic-like contributions.
Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.
Many electronic devices operate in a cyclic mode. This should be considered when forecastingreliability indicators at the design stage.The accuracy of the prediction and the planning for the event to ensure reliability depends on correctness of valuation and accounting greatest possiblenumber of factors. That in turn will affect the overall progress of the design and, in the end,result in the quality and competitiveness of products