### Working paper

## On the macroscopic quantization in mesoscopic rings and single-electron devices

The article presents the possible role of consciousness in quantum-mechanical description of physical reality. The widely spread interpretations of quantum phenomena are considered as indicating the apparent connection between conscious processes (such as observation) and the properties of the microcosm. The reasons for discrepancies between the results of observations of the microcosm and macrocosm and the potential association of consciousness with these reasons are closely investigated. The mentioned connection is meant to be interpreted in the sense that the probable requirement for a complete understanding of quantum theory is the adequate description of consciousness within it and that the correct theory of consciousness should include quantum-mechanical theoretical apparatus. In this context, the question about the methods of scientific cognition is discussed, in particular, the problem of the place and the importance of intellectual intuition in science and philosophy of science. The author draws the conclusiions about the current state of the “measuring” problem in its relationship with consciousness.

The book is devoted to the problem of time. It examines both traditional and completely new concepts of time. The relevance of the topic is due to modern discoveries in the field of confirming the fundamental foundations of quantum mechanics, namely, experiments to check the Legetta-Garg inequalities, experiments with a "quantum eraser that confirm the effect of "interference in time ". These facts indicate the need to revise the concept of time and reality that has developed in modern physics and philosophy, to which this book is devoted. The authors consider the problem of time from the point of view of philosophy, logic and modern physics. For a wide range of readers interested in the problems of time.

We investigate fluctuations of persistent current (PC) in nanorings both with and without dissipation and decoherence. We demonstrate that such PC fluctuations may persist down to zero temperature provided there exists either interaction with an external environment or an external (periodic) potential produced, e.g., by quantum phase slips in superconducting nanorings. Provided quantum coherence is maintained in the system PC noise remains coherent and can be tuned by an external magnetic flux piercing the ring. If quantum coherence gets suppressed by interactions with a dissipative bath PC noise becomes incoherent and independent.

International Conference \Advanced Element Base of Micro- and Nano-Electronics with Using To-date Achievements of Theoretical Physics" is an annual conference of Faculty for Physics and Mathematics of Moscow Region State University (MRSU). MRSU is a leading Russian regional university. This conference is traditionally organized by Department of Theoretical Physics. The conference attracted around 120 participants from many countries and Russian regions. They have applied 83 papers to a special JPCS issue. Special session was devoted to RD of graduate and post-graduate students. The Conference program included sessions as follows:

To-Date Theoretical Physics Problems Electronics Technologies and Materials Condensed Matter Physics Aerohydrodynamics Plasma Physics Electronic devices for biological applications Space Physics and Technologies Education of Physics, Electronics and Information TechnologiesBesides of oral talks at typical scienti c sessions many papers are to be presented on-line with using to-date communication facilities. Therefore, many participants from oversea countries and Russian regions have a good opportunity to tell about their recent RD results and discuss to-date scienti c problems. Many famous scienti c organizations applied their participation in the Conference: Institute of Solid State Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Steklov Mathematics Institute of RAS, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (Technical University), Lomonosov Moscow State University, Federal RD Center of RAS \Crystallography and Photonics", Saint-Petersburg State University, Kurchatov Institute, Alikhanov Institute of Theoretical and Applied Physics, Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of RAS, Computational Center of RAS, RUDN University, Bauman Moscow State Technology University, Donghua University (Shanghai, China), Higher School of Economics - National Research University, Moscow Aviation Institute (Technology University), JSC Cyclon, JSC Pulsar, BOE (China, Russian Oce), Northern Federal University (Arkhangelsk), Demidov Yaroslavl State University, Saratov National Research State University named after N. G. Chernyshevsky, Moscow Regional Research and Clinical Institute "MONIKI", K.G. Razumovsky Moscow State University of Technologies and Management (the First Cossack University), Moscow State University of Design and Technology and many others.

A big group of master, bachelor and post-graduate students from Institute of Solid State Physics of RAS, MRSU, MIPT, RUDN University presented their research results. The International Conference \Advanced Element Base of Micro- and Nano-Electronics with Using To-date Achievements of Theoretical Physics" becomes very important scienti c event with signi cant results of big importance for basic science and practical application.

This book addresses the issue of cognitive semantics’ aspects that cannot be represented by traditional digital and logical means. The problem of creating cognitive semantics can be resolved in an indirect way. The electromagnetic waves, quantum fields, beam of light, chaos control, relativistic theory, cosmic string recognition, category theory, group theory, and so on can be used for this aim. Since the term artificial intelligence (AI) appeared, various versions of logic have been created; many heuristics for neural networks deep learning have been made; new nature-like algorithms have been suggested. At the same time, the initial digital, logical, and neural network principles of representation of knowledge in AI systems have not changed a lot. The researches of these aspects of cognitive semantics of AI are based on the author's convergent methodology, which provides the necessary conditions for purposeful and sustainable convergence of decision-making.

We investigate the effect of interacting quantum phase slips on persistent current and its fluctuations in ultrathin superconducting nanowires and nanorings pierced by the external magnetic flux. We derive the effective action for these systems and map the original problem onto an effective sine-Gordon theory on torus. We evaluate both the flux dependent persistent current and the critical radius of the ring beyond which this current gets exponentially suppressed by quantum fluctuations. We also analyze fluctuations of persistent current caused by quantum phase slips. At low temperatures the supercurrent noise spectrum has the form of coherent peaks which can be tuned by the magnetic flux. Experimental observation of these peaks can directly demonstrate the existence of plasma modes in superconducting nanorings.

The dynamics of a two-component Davydov-Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg-de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton`s component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations.

Radiation conditions are described for various space regions, radiation-induced effects in spacecraft materials and equipment components are considered and information on theoretical, computational, and experimental methods for studying radiation effects are presented. The peculiarities of radiation effects on nanostructures and some problems related to modeling and radiation testing of such structures are considered.