Program Diversification and Specialization in Russian Higher Education Institutions
This volume contains the papers to be presented at VPT 2014: Second International Workshop on Verification and Program Transformation to be held on July 17-18, 2014 in Vienna. The workshop is an event of the Vienna Summer of Logic 2014 and it is co-located with the 26th International Conference on Computer Aided Verification CAV 2014. The workshop aim is to bring together researchers working in two different areas, Verification and Program Transformation. Recent research in both fields has shown a great potential for mutually beneficial interactions. On the one hand the methods, techniques and tools developed in program transformations have been successfully applied for verification of programs, systems and protocols specified by programs. Partial evaluation, partial deduction, fold/unfold transformations, supercompilation and distillation have all been used for verification with a particular success in the verification of infinite-state and parameterized systems. In opposite direction, model checking, automated and interactive theorem proving, SAT- and SMT-based methods have been used to strengthen and optimize program transformations. Yet another area on the border of two fields, that is formal verification and certification of programs transformations tools, such as automated refactoring tools and compilers has attracted considerable interest, posed major challenges and yielded promising results. The workshop aim is to provide a forum where all these interactions could be presented and discussed.
This paper is devoted to changes in the structure of the higher education system in Russia, analysing both historical context and current institutional diversity. The review starts from the Soviet quasi-corporate system when the state combined demand-side and supply-side roles in higher education. The post-Soviet transformation brings new forces that shaped institutional diversity. Following that, the historical typology of institutions is investigated with regard to the major forces influencing these universities' development. Taking into account both the historical legacy and the crucial post-Soviet period (1990s–2000s), a typology of new types of higher education institutions is set forth. It represents an extreme case of state-authorized higher education facing market forces. The state abandons its monopoly on demand in higher education and cannot fully control the supply side. And the system itself is under pressure from the influence of different sides.
The article deals with the problems of education system reform. The author considers the factors of education market development. The US education system's features are characterized. The approaches to research of the structure of the education services market are justified. The problems in content and forms of educational services in logistics are considered.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.