In 1853 Augustin Thierry emphasized in his Essai sur l’histoire de la formation et des progrès du Tiers État that: “the series of municipal revolutions which occurred during the twelfth century offers a certain parallel to the movement which has today propagated constitutional government in many countries…” At a conference held in Luxembourg in 2009, the International Commission for the History of Towns (ICHT) came back to the question whether the administrative autonomy of towns existed throughout Europe and without interruption from the Middle Ages to the era of bourgeois democracy. Has the self-government of towns by their citizens been established everywhere and in all types of towns, or only in certain dominant urban centres, such as the towns within the Empire, cathedral towns, or the Italian city-republics? Do Max Weber’s criteria exclude many smaller towns as shown by research results in recent decades? Due to the international and interdisciplinary character of the ICHT, the 16 papers of the proceedings, partly in English, partly in French, benefit from a two-level approach including geographical comparison as much as chronological differentiation.
This paper focuses on dachas and summer lifestyle in Sokolniki area in the 1800s – 1940s. It discusses owners of the first dachas, transformation of Sokolniki from tsar’s hunting area to a public place with a park and dachas. Basing on unpublished archival materials, memoirs and contemporary newspapers, the following article constructs an image of dachas in Sokolniki, examines prices for dachas, problems the dacha owners faced, the way they solved them and improved dacha living in this area. Besides, this paper observes who were the dacha owners or who rented dachas (both are called ‘dachniki’) and leisure activities available in Sokolniki in the summertime. This article also studies how dachas and ‘dachniki’ were evaluated in the contemporary society.
This paper discusses the legacy of Nikolai Antsiferov (1889–1958), a Russian historian who suggested a unique approach to urban studies in which literature played the key role. In the first section of this paper, the genesis of Antsiferov‘s conceptions of the study of urban history and the image of the city are outlined. The second section provides an analysis of his ideas on the literary image of St. Petersburg and the theory of literary-themed guided tours, which were articulated in his works of the 1920s. The finalsection of the article sheds light on the reception and legacy of Antsiferov‘s intellectual ideas in the modern humanities and assesses its significance in the modern context of interdisciplinarity.
This article examines special features of pleasure gardens (amusement parks) in the late imperial Russia and demonstrates them as sociocultural phenomena. The author attempts to broaden the horizon of the urban leisure studies by addressing to the experience of amusement parks and urban history studies gained by the foreign colleagues. Pleasure gardens appeared to be remarkable phenomena in the urban space of the late imperial Russia in both, a province and capital cities. They managed to become the fin-de-siècle translators of the developing mass culture and were also a place where high culture met the low. The author stresses the significant contribution of the pleasure gardens into the leveling of the audience tastes and into the leisure democratization.
The issue of capital city relocation is a topic of debate for more than forty countries around the world. In this first book to discuss the issue, Vadim Rossman offers an in-depth analysis of the subject, highlighting the global trends and the key factors that motivate different countries to consider such projects, analyzing the outcomes and drawing lessons from recent capital city transfers worldwide for governments and policy-makers.
The article is a survey of the developement of Russian 18th century urban legislation
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.