Understanding Convergence in Immigrant Integration Policies. The Cases of Denmark and Sweden Since 1960.
The migratory situation in Russia in the 1990-2000th years is considered. Separate types of migration are analysed: repatriation, labor migration, internal migration
This paper addresses issues concerning multiculturalism in post-Soviet Russia. These include: the ethnic composition of Russia; the ethnic composition of its immigrant population; and the mutual adaptation of immigrants and members of the larger (host) society. Russia is one of the most multicultural societies in the world, with large populations of 194 different cultural origins. Russia is also second in the world in terms of its immigrant population, with most coming from the Central Asian States (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan) and China. This paper describes the current cultural and immigrant diversity in Russia, and provides an empirical examination of the social and psychological issues that immigrants and the larger society must face. The research example focuses on Moscow as a highly multicultural metropolis and the most attractive destination for immigrant workers. The paper presents the findings of an empirical study based on the “Mutual Intercultural Relations in Plural Societies” project (Berry (2006) that examines. the reciprocal acculturation and intercultural relations between immigrants and members of the larger society (N=1075). The study examines the relevance of three hypotheses for improving intercultural relations: the multiculturalism hypothesis; the integration hypothesis; and contact hypothesis (Berry, 2012) which are all derived from the Canadian multiculturalism policy. Data processing was carried out using structural equation modeling (SEM) with the data of migrants and the host population analyzed separately and then compared with each other. The results showed that the combined measures of security, perceived discrimination, and acculturation strategies and expectations all have a significant impact on immigrants and the host society members’ perceptions of life satisfaction, ethnic tolerance and their mutual attitudes. The results support all three hypotheses in both groups (immigrants and host society). The authors concluded that the efforts to improve relations between the host society and immigrants should be directed at enhancing the host society’s basic sense of security and developing programs that increase multicultural attitudes, ethno-cultural competence and tolerance among the host society as well as among immigrants. These improvements may be achieved using intercultural communication training, which promotes better adaptation and helps improve intercultural relations.
The manual is dedicated to the study of the phenomenon of immigration in France and is meant for students of higher stage of education learning the course of general French, level of proficiency B1,B2.
The manual has practical, educational and developmental objectives.
The main practical objective is to teach how to work with modern texts about the problems of immigration in France, to enrich the students' vocabulary and to from speaking skills.
The inclusion of the materials of the manual in the academic activities is aimed at helping students to from an idea about the main stages of the French immigration, the problems of integration, and at nurturing tolerant attitude towards representatives of various cultures. The materials used for teaching reading and speaking were the texts from quality French publications and articles from print and electronic media related to immigration.
This chapter addresses changes in immigration trends and their psychosocial effects in post-Soviet Russia. Russia is currently the world’s second most populous country (after the USA) in terms of its immigrant population, with most coming from the Central Asian States (Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan) and China. The chapter begins with an examination of the social issues that immigrants must face. The research focuses on Moscow as the most attractive destination for immigrant workers. The chapter presents the findings of an empirical study conducted on the reciprocal acculturation between immigrants and the host society in Moscow. The study examines the correlations between the immigrants’ acculturation attitudes and the host society’s acculturation expectations and perceptions of the immigrants. More specifically, the study focuses on how measures of integral security (including physical, cultural and economic security) influence the host society’s attitudes towards immigrants.
The level of self-employment among immigrants is often higher than among natives. The purpose of this paper was to test empirically whether selective migration with respect to entrepreneurial characteristics may explain this difference. The relevant hypotheses were tested comparing representative samples of Russian immigrants in Norway and their stay-at-home counterparts. Data from the Russian population came from the 2008 GEM study, while data on Russian immigrants in Norway were collected through a specially designed postal survey. The analysis revealed some demographic dissimilarity between the two groups, as well as a presence of selective migration with respect to entrepreneurial characteristics. This study demonstrates that immigrants (as compared to non-migrants) are more likely to report intentions to start a business. Moreover, they possess relatively large amount of specific human capital, social capital and self-confidence relevant for entrepreneurship. The paper concludes with proposed practical implications and suggestions for further research.
Result of a Franco-Russian project (CNRS – Russian Academy of Sciences), this publication presents the latest advances of recent research on the Vikings in a multidisciplinary and comparative perspective across Eastern Europe. It proposes a reflection on the dynamics of cultural exchanges analysed as a process of interactions that have traversed ethnic or social groups, countries, religious beliefs and practices, generations, genders. Questions concerning the specificities of these processes and the reciprocal transformations of Scandinavian settlements and local societies (Frankish, Anglo-Saxon, Slavic, Finnish) are posed. A large part is devoted to the actors involved in these changes (elites, merchants, ecclesiastics, artisans, women, skalds, historiographers...), and the places or areas where they took place. This publication thus participates to the broader reflection on the notions discussed concerning acculturation, cultural transfers and the “middle ground” whose heuristic interest goes far beyond the phenomenon of Scandinavian expansion during the Viking era
Using data from Italy, Spain, and Germany (N = 1,569), this study investigated the role of basic values (universalism and security) and basic traits (openness and agreeableness) in predicting perceptions of the consequences of immigration. In line with Schwartz’s (1992) theory, we conceptualized security as having two distinct components, one concerned with safety of the self (personal security) and the other with harmony and stability of larger groups and of society (group security). Structural equation modeling revealed that universalism values underlie perceptions that immigration has positive consequences and group security values underlie perceptions that it has negative consequences. Personal security makes no unique, additional contribution. Multi-group analyses revealed that these associations are invariant across the three countries except for a stronger link between universalism and perceptions of the consequences of immigration in Spain. To examine whether values mediate relations of traits to perceptions of immigration, we used the Five Factor Model. Findings supported a full mediation model. Individuals’ traits of openness and agreeableness explained significant variance in security and universalism values. Basic values, in turn, explained perceptions of the consequences of immigration.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.