Alternative versions of the global competitive industrial performance ranking constructed by methods from social choice theory
Procedures aggregating individual preferences into a collective choice differ in their vulnerability to manipulations. To measure it, one may consider the share of preference profiles where manipulation is possible in the total number of profiles, which is called Nitzan-Kelly's index of manipulability. The problem of manipulability can be considered in different probability models. There are three models based on anonymity and neutrality: impartial culture model (IC), impartial anonymous culture model (IAC), and impartial anonymous and neutral culture model (IANC). In contrast to the first two models, the IANC model, which is based on anonymity and neutrality axioms, has not been widely studied. In addition, there were no attempts to derive the difference of probabilities (such as Nitzan-Kelly's index) in IC and IANC analytically. We solve this problem and show in which cases the upper bound of this difference is high enough, and in which cases it is almost zero. These results enable us to simplify the computation of indices.
Abstract Clustering cities based on their socio-economic development in long time period is an important issue and may be used in many ways, e.g., in strategic regional planning. In this paper we continue our recent study where cumulative attribute for each year replaces nine other attributes, called ’vector of dynamics’. In our previous paper some original ranking method was proposed. Using the same data set, here we try out some classical clustering models such as Minimum sum of squares and Harmonic means clustering. Results for the two last models are obtained using Variable neighborhood search based heuristics. A comparative study among old and new results on 120 Russian large cities are provided and analyzed.
The problem of the manipulability of known social choice rules in the case of multiple choice is considered. Several concepts of expanded preferences (preferences over the sets of alternatives) are elaborated. As a result of this analysis ordinal and nonordinal methods of preferences expanding are defined. The notions of the degree of manipulability are extended to the case under study. Using the results of theoretical investigation, 22 known social choice rules are studied via computational experiments to reveal their degree of manipulability.
When a society needs to take a collective decision one could apply some aggregation method, particularly, voting. One of the main problems with voting is manipulation. We say a voting rule is vulnerable to manipulation if there exists at least one voter who can achieve a better voting result by misrepresenting his or her preferences. The popular approach to comparing manipulability of voting rules is defining complexity class of the corresponding manipulation problem. This paper provides a survey into manipulation complexity literature considering variety of problems with different assumptions and restrictions.
We consider a transformed Ornstein--Uhlenbeck process model that can be a good candidate for modeling real-life processes characterized by a combination of time-reverting behavior with heavy distribution tails. We begin with presenting the results of an exploratory statistical analysis of the log prices of a major Australian public company, demonstrating several key features typical of such time series. Motivated by these findings, we suggest a simple transformed Ornstein--Uhlenbeck process model and analyze its properties showing that the model is capable of replicating our empirical findings. We also discuss three different estimators for the drift coefficient in the underlying (unobservable) Ornstein--Uhlenbeck process which is the key descriptor of dependence in the process.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.