Social Exchange Concept As A Methodological Framework For Employment Relations Analysis
With a view to ensuring a follow up of the implementation of the Recommendation, the International Labour Office was instructed to assist constituents in developing national policies and setting up monitoring and implementing mechanisms, as well as to promote good practices at the national and international levels concerning the determination and use of employment relationships. In response to that decision, the International Labour Office, developed in 2007 an Annotated Guide to Recommendation No. 198 using the technical expertise of a group of experts from around the world which presented examples in law and practice on how the various aspects of the Recommendation were being dealt with in many countries in different regions. Over the recent years, there have been increasing developments at the European level regarding the employment relationship in legislation, case law, collective agreements and soft law. In this context, the ILO, and in particular the then Industrial and Employment Relations Department (DIALOGUE) undertook a strategic partnership with the European Labour Law Network (ELLN), a network of independent legal experts from all European Union Member States and European Economic Area countries, in order to produce an updated version of the 2007 annotated Guide with a specific focus on European countries. The European Labour Law Network was established in 2005 on initiative of Professors Guus Heerma van Voss (University of Leiden) and Bernd Waas (University of Frankfurt am Main), the latter being the editor of this Guide. The European Labour Law Network is comprised of non-governmental legal experts from all European Member States and the EEA countries. In December 2007, the European Labour Law Network signed a contract with the Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion of the European Commission in Brussels (formerly the Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities) and, under the name ‘European Network of Legal Experts in the Field of Labour Law, dealing with both individual and collective rights/aspects’, became the European Commission’s official advisory board on issues relating to developments in individual and collective labour law. In this capacity, the Network has been conducting extensive research for the European Commission. Among other things, it produced a Thematic Report on the “Characteristics of the Employment Relationship” in 2009. This guide builds upon up-dated information analysed in that research project. (More information at: http://www.labourlawnetwork.eu). In summer 2013 International Labour Office approached Russian labour law scholars, - associate professors Elena Gerasimova (NRU HSE), Nikita Lyutov (MSAL, NRU HSE) and Daria Chernyaeva (NRU HSE), – with a suggestion to prepare a Russian translation of the Gude and to amend it with materials concerning the CIS countries.
This paper offers an outline of the perception of “transnational employment relations” in a legal context. It will analyse various doctrinal and legislative approaches to the definition of the phenomenon, as well as the usage of the terms employed in its naming, its key characteristics and classifications. The author will reveal and explore the reasons for the problems that arise in the interpretation and legal regulation of the phenomenon, and will suggest some possible solutions to them.
The paper will analyse several terminological aspects of the terms used in descriptions of and references to employment relations which could be seen as falling under more than one legal order (jurisdiction). The paper will also aim to prove the hypothesis that, from a legal point of view, a transnational employment relation can be described (and differentiated from a regular “national” employment relation) through the presence of elements in which “transnationality” manifests itself and the number of such elements in a particular relationship. From this viewpoint, we can divide all transnational employment relations into two groups according to whether the “transnationality” of its elements is connected with one (simple relationship) or more (complex relationship) countries (legal orders) except the observer’s county (legal order).
 The term “transnational employment relations” in the title and the opening parts of the paper merely serves as a starting point for the study and a time/space saver to make references more compact. It should not be seen as an ideal or recommended naming of the phenomenon in question.
"Employment Relations" is widely taught in business schools around the world. Increasingly however more emphasis is being placed on the comparative and international dimensions of the relations between employers and workers. It is becoming ever more important to comprehend today’s work and employment issues alongside a knowledge of the dynamics between global financial and product markets, global production chains, national and international employment actors and institutions and the ways in which these relationships play out in different national contexts.
This textbook is the first to present a cross-section of country studies, including all four BRIC countries, Brazil, Russia, India and China alongside integrative thematic chapters covering all the important topics needed to excel in this field. The textbook also benefits from the editors' and contributors' experience as leading scholars in Employment Relations. The book is an ideal resource for students on advanced undergraduate and postgraduate comparative programmes across areas such as Employment Relations, Human Resource Management, Political Economy, Labour Politics, Industrial and Economic Sociology, Regulation and Social Policy.
The article deals with the theme of the semantic and functional continuity of the current solidarity practices and the Soviet-era experience (corporate volunteering and Soviet patronage as a particular case). The work aims to identify sociological parameters for comparing these practices. The article provides an analysis of the functions, attributed meanings and motivation of participants in these two types of social activity. The empirical basis for studying patronage includes published memoirs, ideological and historical texts, and interviews with former participants in patronage activities. The aspects of corporate volunteering that were necessary for comparison with patronage were studied on the materials of an investigation carried out under the guidance of Ivan Klimov. The results of the analysis suggest that some characteristics of patronage and corporate volunteering are very similar (in point of voluntary and free labour), whereas some other characteristics are substantially diff erent. Our attempt to compare patronage and corporate volunteering makes it possible to draw two groups of conclusions. The fi rst group concerns practical problems of the functioning of public institutions in contemporary Russia. In our opinion, the hot topic here is the problematization of socio-cultural and socio-institutional mechanisms of social interactions “in the vertical direction”: between more or less resource-based social groups and individuals. The second groups comprises methodological conclusions regarding the themes and aspects of the analysis of the contemporary forms of solidarity that are outside the scope of interest of contemporary researchers studying not only volunteering, but also other forms of social life which have replaced those that existed in the past. Prospects for advancing the theme are seen in the development of topics related to the analysis of the mechanisms of patronage and volunteer activities and the peculiarities of interaction between social subjects in the framework of the former and existing practices. In the context of comparative analysis we deem it promising to search for answers to questions about the peculiarities of individual and collective participation in volunteer activities; about event and participation volunteering; about justification of volunteer activities; about the ethical basis of volunteering. This work implies the need for expanding the research base and raising new methodological and methodical issues.
Non-standard employment contracts are not a new phenomenon for the Russian labor market and being increasingly used by Russian enterprises. But their importance to the economy, the impact on employment and wages are still unclear. The positive effect of non-standard employment contracts can be seen in increasing a probability of escaping from the unemployment, in rising a number of employees, and enhancing a probability of their work employment. It is possible that the wages of workers with non-standard employment contracts could be lower than those with standard employment contracts. Using the data stu died (in 2009-2010), the author shows the dynamics of employment and wages growth as a result of using nonstandard employment contracts by Russian enterprises.
The chapter discusses market forces and the transformation of Russian employment relations starting with 1990. The Russian case shows that the ability of actors to exercise strategic choice varies greatly according to context. Russian unions were strongly constrained in their response to reform. The Russian state was ostensibly far less confined in its decision making, but still found it hard to escape the ‘sticky’ institutions of the past. It was not the formal institutions of soviet power which proved most resilient, but inherited pattern of clientelist relations and politicised resource allocation, which subverted the economic and political ‘transition’.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.