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Political discourse has always been one of the most powerful tools of exerting considerable influence on the audience. This may be explained by the fact that it is usually broadcast on the radio or television and printed in newspapers. In other words, political discourse always reaches the addressee in one way or another. This is also the reason for a careful choice of linguistic material, which can help to influence the audience’s opinion. In addition, in order to interpret the discourse correctly one should be aware of the context in which this discourse is created. To illustrate this idea, it is reasonable to turn to the notion of intertextuality, which enables the author to broaden the scope of his/her discourse and to add new shades of meaning to the words uttered by means of an explicit or implicit appeal to other discourses. However, this only becomes possible if the addressee can identify such a link, i.e. he/she possesses the same knowledge and experience as the author. Allusions to music can serve as one of the most illustrative examples of interdiscursivity as they may be recognized by a considerable number of people. Therefore, they can convey the necessary meaning to the addressee. Barack Obama has always employed this method of impacting people’s consciousness. Following the traditions of African American rhetoric, he employs music in his discourse rather frequently, which enables him to appeal to people of various age groups, add new shades of meaning to his words, turn to American history and at the same time be an up-to-date politician. As a result, interdiscursivity is acclaimed an extremely powerful method of influencing the audience and allusions to music being one of its tools have their own purport.
The world is changing rapidly. The novelty, variability, uncertainty of the future – have become the norm of life. Internal motivation, initiative, self-regulation become important vital qualities. The development of not only cognition, but also meta-knowledge becomes the norm of educational practice. It is important that education in this situation develops subjectivity and the ability to preadaptation. At the same time, it is important that the practice of education develops on the basis of psychological research. A review of existing studies is given and planned experimental studies in this direction are described.
This paper attempts to offer a framework for a broad stroke reconstruction of metonymy as a process. It offers a critical overview of the phenomenon of metonymy which is termed as a process of mapping of one concept or its part into another concept within the same idealized cognitive model.
Here it is argued that this cognitive approach to metonymy may well be used to recostruct the origin of metonymy, with dating the initial stage of it as far back as the Acheulean. It is also claimed that metaphor is genealogically related to metonymy, which may be proven by the analysis of different forms of paleolithic industry and art.
Empedocles’ theory of knowledge is a quite difficult problem, as the fragments and doxography give us rather contradictory data. On the one hand, according to Aristotle and Theophrastus, the Sicilian philosopher did not make any distinction between thinking and sense perception and he considered them to be mechanically determined. On the other hand, the true knowledge is the result of revelation from Muse. In order to reconstruct Empedocles’ theory of knowledge it is necessary to examine the fragments of his poems in their historical context. This approach apparently seems to be able to give an explanation of the originality of Empedocles’ thought.
The book describes theinterdependent relations between the multilingualism and literary creativity.
The complex phenomena of the individual creative activities as well as the historical development of scientific knowledge are under consideration from the point of view of the theory of self-organization (synergetics) in the book. Synergetics is characterized as a new research programme in a wide philosophical, cultural and historical context. The synergetical reinterpretations of some peculiarities of the creative thinking, such as the alternative ways and the scenarios, the latent attitudes and the predeterminations, the self-completing of whole images, are proposed here. The synergetical view of historical development of scientific knowledge is compiled in the book from the notions of the principal nonlinearity and cyclic character of science development,the inertia of the paradigmal consciousness in science, the value of marginal and archaic elements in science. For readers who are interested in evolutionary epistemology and the philosophical problems of synergetics.
One of the most intriguing and challenging questions in the interdisciplinary study of mental processes and underlying brain mechanisms is how language is related to thought. The question is by no means new. Scholars have attempted to unravel the relationship between language and thought since the early days of Western philosophy. Recent theories range from strictly modular accounts of linguistic processing to fully integrated theories, according to which linguistic processes strongly interact with more general cognitive mechanisms such as attention, memory, and action control. Unfortunately, theoretical exchange between proponents of these different views is often lacking. In part, this is due to the interdisciplinary nature of the question itself. As a result, researchers representing various disciplines often fail to engage in an exchange of theoretical views, research ideas, and methodological expertise. The present Frontiers' Special Topic provides a platform for such dialogue. It features contributions discussing the latest advances and challenges in the frontline research on language and cognition and attempts to provide a joint discussion forum for a wide range of researchers from the domains of cognitive psychology, neuroscience, and psycholinguistics, among others. These researchers follow different theoretical approaches and use different experimental methodologies. What unites them is their goal to understand the mechanisms underlying the interplay between linguistic and general cognitive processes. General cognitive mechanisms in linguistic communication do not only include retrieval and processing of linguistic information; they also rely upon constant updating and organizing of this linguistic information in relation with other, more general representations. Some existing theoretical models assume a tight interactive coupling between domain-general and domain-specific sources of information in the cognitive organization of the linguistic faculty. Domain-specific constraints may include, for example, grammatical as well as lexical and pragmatic knowledge. Domain-general constraints comprise processing limitations imposed by the cognitive mechanisms of memory, attention, learning, and social interaction. However, much of the existing research tends to focus on one or the other of the aforementioned areas, while integrative accounts are still rather sparse at present. The aim of this Special Topic of Frontiers in Cognition is therefore to bring together researchers who, within their respective research fields and by using different methodologies, represent integrative approaches to the study of language. Our Research Topic presents a collection of seventeen excellent articles that include original research, commentaries, opinions, and reviews. A number of papers in this Topic discuss neurophysiological and behavioral evidence about the interface between language, perception, and attention. Research discussed by Roelofs and Piai (2011)suggests that word planning does not always require full executive attention while specific attention deficits may contribute to impaired language performance. The results discussed by Roelofs and Piai (2011) demonstrate how gaze shifts can be linked to the process of phonological encoding with specific focus on word production automaticity. The article by Myachykov et al. (2012) presents evidence about the special role attention plays in determining the assignment of grammatical roles and the associated syntactic choice in visually situated sentence production. Papers by Huettig et al. (2012), Knoeferle et al. (2011), and Kaiser (2012) provide complementary evidence about the involvement of the language-cognition interface during sentence comprehension in visually situated contexts. The contribution by Shtyrov (2011) reports novel findings about rapid pre-attentive mapping of novel word forms, as evidenced by changes in the dynamics of brain responses within very short exposures. Finally, Hussey and Novick (2012) report intriguing evidence about the benefits of executive control training for grammatical processing in ambiguous contexts. The question of coordination between interlocutors during dialogue is raised in two articles. Gambi and Pickering (2011) used a novel interactive methodology in order to demonstrate that interlocutors constantly coordinate their sentences to represent their partner's knowledge. They then use these representations to build unfolding predictions, which they take into account when planning self-generated utterances. Similarly, Dale and colleagues (2011) use eye-movement synchronization between interlocutors as evidence for rapid approximation of actions in dialogue and the emergence of a single coordinated interactive system. Three papers in our Topic discuss embodied and grounded aspects of language processing. Lupyan (2012) addresses the question of the language-cognition interplay from the point of view of how language affects cognition and perception. In particular, Lupyan (2012) reviews evidence showing that performance on tasks that have been presumed to be non-verbal is rapidly modulated by language. Klemfuss et al. (2012) discuss effects of language on perception by critically reviewing evidence suggesting top-down influences of linguistic representations on visual feature detection. Their own research suggests that visual search is disrupted by the automatic activation of irrelevant linguistic representations. Another important aspect of the grounded view of language is the role played by perception and action systems in the organization of abstract knowledge. Scorolli et al. (2011) discuss the crucial role played by embodied theories of cognition in linguistic experience for abstract words. A number of papers in this Special Topic discuss architectural properties of the language-cognition interface. For example, Menenti et al. (2012) investigated how brain areas adapt to repetition of various sentence properties, thereby unraveling the neuronal infrastructure for the specific components of semantic encoding. Mashal and colleagues (2012) present a novel cortical network model for observation and imitation of speech. Their results show that the network models for observation and imitation comprise the same essential structure but differ in important features that reflect distinct connectivity patterns. Andric and Small (2012) contribute to the debate by discussing how the brain processes language and co-occurring gestures. Finally, Naylor et al. (2012) focus on cognitive and electrophysiological correlates of the bilingual Stroop effect by analysing corresponding ERP components in bilingual speakers. Their research shows, among other things that color words from both languages created response conflict and that the between-within language Stroop effect reflects complex brain activity with contributions from language both and color at different task points.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Conceptual Structures, ICCS 2009, which took place in Moscow, Russia, on July 26-31, 2009.
The 18 papers presented together with 5 invited contributions were carefully reviewed and selected from approximately 50 submissions. Originally centered around research on knowledge representation and reasoning with conceptual graphs, over the years ICCS has broadened its scope to include innovations from a wider range of theories and related practices, among them other forms of graph-based formalisms like RDF or existential graphs, formal concept analysis, semantic Web technologies, ontologies, concept mapping and more.