Why do People Start-up? Motivation Structure of Early Entrepreneurship and the Innovation Drive in the Netherlands and Russia
The paper differentiates the main reasons of entrepreneurial motivation to start-up, and what supports ability to innovate among entrepreneurs in the Netherlands and Russia.
In this monograph the authors assert that Russian verbal prefixes always express meaning, even when they are used to form the perfective partners of aspectual pairs. The prefixes in verbs like написать/na-pisat' 'write' and сварить/s-varit' 'cook' have semantic purpose, even though the corresponding imperfective verbs писать/pisat' 'write' and варить/varit' 'cook' have the same lexical meanings. This suggests a new hypothesis, namely that the Russian verbal prefixes function as verb classifiers, parallel to numeral classifiers.
The exposition is designed to be theory-neutral and accessible to both linguists and nonlinguists. The studies make use of quantitative research on corpus data and statistical models (chisquare, logistic regression, etc.), which are presented in a common-sense way that assumes no special expertise. A user-friendly interactive webpage at http://emptyprefixes.uit.no/book.htm houses links to the authors' database, plus additional data from the studies cited.
This book narrates recent breakthroughs in research on Russian aspect and demonstrates a range of methodologies designed to probe the relationship between the meaning and distribution of linguistic forms. These methodologies are used to investigate the "empty" prefixes, alternating constructions, prefix variation, and aspectual triplets. Though these phenomena have long been known to exist, their extent and behavior have not been previously explored in detail.
The authors propose that the verbal prefixes select verbs according to broad semantic traits, categorizing them the way numeral classifiers categorize nouns. The purpose of the prefixes is to convert amorphous states and activities into discrete events and to group verbs according to the types of events they express. In other words, Russian prefixes are in effect a verb classifier system similar to those proposed for Mandarin Chinese, Hindi-Urdu, and a number of Australian languages, and this hypothesis facilitates cross-linguistic comparisons. The description of Russian prefixes as a verb classifier system furthermore has pedagogical value since curricula may be redesigned to teach students the system according to its meaningful groupings rather than simply requiring them to memorize hundreds of combinations of prefixes with simplex verbs.
In short, the proposal to recognize Russian prefixes as verb classifiers supports the community of people interested in Russian grammar to be better linguists, better instructors, and better learners.
Author presents results of the scientific seminar " Legal regulation of economic activities in China and Russia" (series" Legal aspects of BRICS " ), held in St. Petersburg by the Law Faculty of the Higher School of Economics - St. Petersburg Branch, with a participation of 15 colleagues from 6 universities of China.
The study is based on the GEM Russia Adult Population Survey (APS) 2006-2009 data sets. The APS survey in Russia is steadily based on the nationwide, multi-stage, stratified and probability sample (N=2000) that represents the entire adult population older than 18 years. The sample design is based on the Census 2002 data revised by the data of Rosstat (Russian Government Statistical Committee) on January 1st, 2009. To collect data, face-to-face interviewing is used. GEM estimates the level of involvement in early-stage entrepreneurial activity by calculating the sum of nascent entrepreneurs and new business owners. The GEM methodology is briefly characterized on the project website (www.gemconsortium.org).
The crisis in Russia lead to an increase of the role of economic reasons of business discontinuation, but most of former entrepreneurs who discontinued a business from economic reasons will in mid-term perspective try to (re)start anew, in contrast to those who would never try it once more; most of the latter group are escaping from other than economic reasons. They would hardly re-start again under any macroeconomic conditions. From this point of view, the crisis influenced the entrepreneurial potential only temporary.
Meanwhile, this temporary effect was rather strong - the intensity of business discontinuation under the crisis grew compared with previous years, and the difference between entries and exits became negative.
Persons with entrepreneurial past, who quit a business forever, form a ‘big loss’ of entrepreneurial potential because of their experience and skills. The factors which play a role in deciding whether to (re)start again or not, are gender and education: men and persons with higher education are more often considering a possible entrepreneurial comeback, while women and respondents with lower level of education tend more often to escape from business definitively.
Besides, there are subjective factors - negative perceptions of opportunities to do a business and low self-efficacy - which play an important role preventing a significant part of former entrepreneurs to start up anew.
The crisis have had a negative impact on the motivation to start-up among non-entrepreneurial part of population; however, the share of necessity driven should didn’t become higher than the share of opportunity driven potential entrepreneurs – maybe, because of a relatively moderate impact of the crisis on the situation on labour market.
The crisis in Russia did lead neither to a deterioration of motivational structure of early entrepreneurship nor to any dramatic increase of those who entirely resigned as entrepreneurs. That is why efficient government policy to promote entrepreneurship should encourage adults both to start-ups by promoting skills and self-efficacy (to increase the share of opportunity entrepreneurs) as well as to ease the process of closing down inefficient existing businesses.
In many languages of the world, the forms in the irrealis domain (subjunctive, conjunctive, conditional) are also used in complement clauses. The set of verbs that require subjunctive complementation is similar but not identical across languages. The paper identifies Russian verbs licensing subjunctive in complement clauses, either as the only option or as an alternative to the indicative. Basing on the Russian National Corpus, a list of these predicates is compiled, with relative frequencies of subjunctive vs. indicative for each predicate. The main result of the study is distinguishing two types of subjunctive complement clauses. Most predicates belong to the group which is similar to purpose clauses with чтобы, both semantically and syntactically. The subject of the main predicate is involved in the situation described by the subordinate clause by wishing it to be realized, by intention, or causal relations. The second, minor group includes epistemic uses of чтобы with e.g. сомневаться and other predicates in the context of negation, interrogation and other constructions expressing low probability.
The paper considers the financial choice of entrepreneurs at their initial stage of development as a key criterion of a new firm potential riskiness. The main objective of the research is the methodology elaboration aimed at the numerical estimation of the role of informal financial resources involved in the small business creation. Two fundamental considerations have been tested. The former implies that informal investment is a substitution for unavailable formal sources, including venture capital (because of the lack of essential networks and connections with business associations). The latter performs the opposite concept of negative effects: economic reasoning discouragement and inefficient resources allocation. A special technique is introduced in order to measure the credit quality of early entrepreneurial activity and to estimate its contingency with the financial strategy. The methodology validation is realised under Global Entrepreneurship Monitor conceptual framework. The results are received for 42 countries in 2006-2007, depicting the influence of informal support on potential losses under the second consideration. As a result, informal investments are inefficient when the concentration of credit risk in the economy is rather high. Investorsђ expectations about the entrepreneurial growth of the firm are pessimistic, anticipated returns on investments are too low to be economically reasonable. The outcome leads to the irrecoverable losses, both financial (short-received profitability) and nonfinancial (decreased output, the lack of innovativeness, flexibility, and inventiveness).
The book is a volume of reports in the 5th International congress of Petrine towns
The participation of a Russian team in the GEM Consortium made it possible to collect data for Russia on the level of development and the structure of entrepreneurial potential that are comparable to analogous indicators in other countries participating in the GEM. (It should be noted that in 2006 and in 2007 the GEM was based on analysis of survey results from 42 countries, with a total sample of more than 170600 people.). Entrepreneurship is taken to mean any attempt to create a new enterprise or business, including self-employment, the creation of a new entrepreneurial structure or the expansion of a pre-existing business, undertaken by an individual, a group of individuals or an existing business structure.