Испытание дарами на пути «из варяг в греки»: дипломатический этикет и повествовательная формула
The book is devoted to the problem of emergence of the Russian State in geopolitical context - political and cultural processes taking place in Europe at the end of the 1-th thousand AD, since the migrations of the Slavs. It presents the study of the historical foundations of the Primary Chronicle tales concerning the first Russian princes (starting with legends about Kiy and the calling of the Varangians). Formation of the basic phenomena of the initial Russian statehood - towns, public law and worship, art - is being considered, taking into account the interaction of different cultural traditions of the Eastern Europe. The final storyline of the book are the choice of faith, characteristic of primary Russian Christianity and rejected Paganism
The book includes materials of the 30th V.T. Pashuto memorial readings timed to the 100th anniversary of V.T. Pashuto’s births.
Dieser Band beruht im Kern auf dem gleichnamigen internationalen und interdisziplinären Kolloquium, das mit Förderung der Deutschen Forschungsgemeinschaft vom 20 bis 22. Februar 2009 an der Universität des Saarlandes zu Saarbrücken stattfand. Alle Beiträge sind, wo notwendig, aktualisiert worden. Das Kolloquium verstand sich als Ergänzung und Weiterführung der 2006 in Saarbrücken abgehaltenen Forschungstagung zur noch jungen Disziplin der ,Interferenz-Onomastik‘, bei der es um ,Namen in Grenz- und Begegnungsräumen in Geschichte und Gegenwart‘ ging (Haubrichs, Wolfgang/Tiefenbach/Heinrich (Hrsg.). Saarbrücken 2011), auch auf dem Gebiet der Anthroponymie, also um die Leistung der Personennamen für die kulturelle Integration benachbarter oder sich überlagernder und mischender Gruppen und Ethnien. Räumlich reichen die hier vereinigten Arbeiten von Historikern, Romanisten, Anglisten, Skandinavisten und Germanisten von Gallien und dem Frankenreich über Spanien, Britannien, Skandinavien, Churrätien bis ins langobardische und byzantinische Italien. Zeitlich umfassen sie die Spätantike, Merowinger- und Karolingerzeit bis ins Hohe Mittelalter.
Any scholar, or indeed any interested reader, concerned with the cultural history of Rus’ in the 10th to 13th centuries has inevitably to face a kind of paradox: while the role of Scandinavians in the political and ecclesiastical life of pre-Mongol Rus’ was far from insignificant, the evidence from native Russian sources concerning this group of immigrants is scarce and quite fragmented. Against this background, any coherent sequence of elements on Russian–Scan-dinavian relations in extant Old Russian written sources acquires particular importance. Extraordinarily, across the entirety of the narrative space of the 10th to 12th centuries, Rurikids aside, there is just a single family whose Va-rangian origins are identified explicitly, whose close affinities with Scandinavia are noted, and for whom biographical details of three men representing three generations are given. These three men are Yakun the Varangian, his nephew Shimon and one of Shimon’s sons, named George. A very curious series of co-incidences was therefore needed to leave records of at least three generations of a Scandinavian family in Old Russian manuscripts – and records containing unambiguous indications of their Varangian origin. This ongoing investigation into Varangian genealogy seems to support the suggestion that some of the chronicle’s more complex and enigmatic stories may echo oral histories of aris tocratic families whose descendants, in one way or another, had personal ties to writers involved in creating the history of Rus’.
The paper deals with the problem of reflection of Slavic legends about first rulers in the text of the Polish chronicle Gesta principum Polonorum by Gallus
Anonymous (the early twelfth century). The author compares the story of the Piast dynasty’s coming to power in Poland with that of the rise to power of King Haraldr Fairhair in Norway (in Snorri Sturluson’s Heimskringla, c. 1230, and Flateyjarbók, 1387–1394). It is obvious that in the basis of both texts lays a common motif: “at a feast of a ruler food suddenly disappears, and then the ruler loses his power and dies”. All the basic and additional motifs in these two stories are the same. The plot is based on the juxtaposition of two feasts, one of which is meager, and the other is generous. In the both texts we clearly see a description of the pagan rite called potlatch — a periodic mandatory emulative public delivery of products and values, which requires the current ruler to outdone his opponent in generosity. We have two implementations of the same invariant plot. There can be two assumptions about the time of the formation of such a plot, common for the Scandinavian and the Slavic traditions. It is possible that it is a “wandering plot”, typical for the period of intensive contacts between the Slavs and the Scandinavians in the circum- Baltic area from the seventh till the eleventh century, or it could be a more ancient time when the contacts between the Germanic tribes and the Slavs are fixed linguistically: the periods of exchange between the Teutonic and Slavonic languages.
A comparison of the texts of Snorri Sturluson and Gallus Anonymous gives us an opportunity to confirm the hypothesis that oral legendary tradition underlays the first Polish chronicle. Even for Gallus, an educated foreign Benedictine monk, an appeal to the pagan past of the ruling dynasty, for which he was writing his chronicle, was actually necessary. We clearly see here a dictate of the local audience, the requests of which could not be ignored. Note also that chronicle was such a form of historiography that badly needed oral epic and folklore sources for its anecdotal narrations.
The early Polish historiography demontsrates a number of typological parallels, as well as a number of structural differences in comparison with the Old Rus chronicles. The arrangement of material in Gesta principum Polonorum seems remarkably close to that in the first Russian historiographical work, the so-called Oldest Tale (or Oldest Chronicle), written in the first half of the eleventh century. This non-extant text can be reconstructed in its main features from the text of the Primary Chronicle of the early twelfth century. The Russian Oldest Tale, just as the chronicle of Gallus, was a record of a series of episodes from the early history of the ruling dynasty. Both texts were purely secular in main topics, both aimed at glorifying the ruling prince and his ancestors, both lacked an annalistic framework.
Dynastic life in medieval Europe was subject to a complex network ofnorms, rules, and prohibitions. Some of these were recorded in writing,although, as a rule, with a signiÞcant delay, when the rules themselveswere about to fall out of use. Others, despite remaining unwritten, regu-lated many aspects of everyday dynastic life, which repeatedly conÞrmedtheir existence. This refers not only to ceremonial and dynastic etiquette,but also to a kind of family predestination compelling various dynastymembers and their immediate circle to take on certain roles and behave incertain ways and not others.
The acrticle is concerned with the vision of Western Church by rusian bookmen of the 11–12th centuries as it can be studied based on the “anti-latin” sermons, issued by rusian orthodox clergy of the time. These sermons are often regarded as badly composed and epigonic. Systematic comparison of such texts with their most probable prototyes demonstrares however that rusian bookmen were competent enough to extend available information on the West leaning on their own observations and estimations. Our knowledge on political and cultural relations between Rus’ and western Europe extends remarkably when we establish by whom and when the noted amplifications were made.