Macrosocial Roots of Ethnonationalist Revival: Modes of Narration and Value Configurations
The article examines the causes of the recent revival of the ethnic version of national identity in the global public discourse, signified by the alleged failure of multiculturalism in Europe. The two most widespread hypotheses are innateness of ethnonationalism to the irrational side of human nature and ethnonationalism as a form of xenophobia due to increased migration. Both these hypotheses are rejected as a result of an empirical research. Firstly, narrative analysis of 500 national identity narratives reveals inner reflexivity and rationality of ethnonationalist discourse. Secondly, factor and cluster analysis of the relevant data of the most recent wave of the World Values Survey suggest that national commitment and multiculturalism constitute two uncorrelated dimensions of nationalism and that, while ethnonationalism is prevalent in approximately three quarters of the countries, xenophobic nationalism is characteristic only for a small fraction of the globe. This triangulation of qualitative and quantitative methods of studying national identity result in an integrated explanatory model for the macrosocial roots of ethnonationalism as an interplay of a specific mode of narration and certain sets of values, which suggests unobvious ways of implementing ideals of multiculturalism.