Типы сензитивности наблюдателя при распознавании эмоций
The paper reviews contemporary research of group helping behavior - help for some members of outgroup or outgroup as a whole. Various forms of selfish helping (help, contrary to stereotypes, defensive help) and factors of intensity of the helping behavior are analyzed. In conclusion, describes the limitations of existing studies
Studies of emotion recognition ability do not give an exact answer to the question whether it is a general ability of a human being. We make an attempt to cover this gap using three types of stimuli: human behavior, music, non-musical sound stimuli. Two aspects of emotion recognition ability are proposed to be distinguished. One aspect is supposed to be accuracy of emotion modality recognition, i.e. an ability to recognize correctly modality of emotional state. Another aspect might be emotion sensitivity, i.e. a bias in emotion perception such that intensity of emotions is ‘overperceived’ or 'underperceived'. The hypothesis that sensitivity is a general component and accuracy is a specific component of emotion recognition ability was partly confirmed.
Meaningful life is emotionally marked off. That’s the general point that Johansen (IPBS: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science 44, 2010) makes which is of great importance. Fictional abstractions use to make the point even more salient. As an example I’ve examined Borges’ famous fiction story. Along with the examples of Johansen it provides an informative case of exploring symbolic mechanisms which bind meaning with emotions. This particular mode of analysis draws forth poetry and literature in general to be treated as a “meaningful life laboratory”. Ways of explanation of emotional effect the art exercises on people, which had been disclosed within this laboratory, however, constitute a significant distinction in terms that I have designated as “referential” and “substantive”. The former appeals to something that has already been charged with emotional power, whereas the latter comes to effect by means of special symbolic mechanisms creating the emotional experience within the situation. Johansen, who tends to explain emotions exerted by the art without leaving the semiotic perspective, is drawn towards the “referential” type of explanation. Based upon discussions in theory of metaphor and Robert Witkin’s sociological theory of arts it is demonstrated an insufficient of “referential” explanation. To overcome a monopoly of “referential” explanation of emotional engagement, in particular, in literature, means to break away from the way of reasoning, stating endless references to “something else”, presupposing the existence of something already significant and therefore sharing its effects.