Why We Do What We Do: The Variety of Human Regulations
The chapter presents an attempt to answer the basic question of the motivational roots of human activity in terms of varied principles and systems of activity regulation. Regulation is treated as the general principle explaining the capacity of living systems to move from less desirable outcomes to more desirable ones, based on feedback evaluated against the criteria of the desirable and causing corrections of the current activity. Forms of regulation may be of different complexity and subordinated to different kinds of criteria. The author offers a theoretical classification of possible logics of human regulation, each of them being an elementary mechanism; the proposed multiregulation personality model suggests that the whole system of individual autoregulation is made by the combination of the described elementary mechanisms in individually varied proportions that accounts for the qualitative interindividual differences.
The first part of this book is devoted to the old problem of fundamental motivations that can hardly be approached in another way, other than theoretically. The second part of the book is devoted to new or rather marginal concepts that seem capable to enrich general models of motivational processes. Part three of the book deals with the issues of self-regulation and self-determination; in the last two decades the problems of motivation can be hardly dealt with without touching these issues. The focus of the last part of the book is cultural context and cultural mediation of motivation. This book was planned not as a collection of discoveries to be considered, but rather as a collection of nontrivial views that may turn helpful for making a better sense of the discoveries actually made. (Imprint: Nova)
Psychology of motivation is a very special field of psychological inquiry – highly, and even intimately important for everyone and still very fragmented and obscure, despite its centennial history. It was not always made a separate field during this history. A period of much theoretical interest in motivation directly connected with the fascination of the riddle of human nature through the first half of the 20th century was followed after the Second World War by decades of disappointment in general theory, narrow specialization of research and straightforward methodological rigorism. The field of motivation was occupied by cognitive revolutionaries, split into pieces and largely dissolved in other problems, such as learning, personnel management, psychotherapy, etc. In the last couple of decades this field seems to “reemerge” (Ryan, 2007). Among the factors of this reemergence R. Ryan mentioned a renewed interest to human nature, the rapid growth of cross-cultural psychology, new positive emphasis in research agenda, attention to profound existential issues, the discovery of sophisticated brain mechanisms of higher regulations, etc. Due to all these developments the psychology of motivation is now less than totally bound with old Manichean dichotomies like cognition vs. affect, conscious vs. unconscious, internal vs. external, etc. that now seem strongly delimiting if not misleading. It is less concerned with distinguishing easily measurable stable (that is, static) dispositional variables and attempts to get a better idea of the involved processes, relationships and complex systems.
The chapter presents a theoretical analysis of applications of the concept of meaning in the psychology of motivation. The history of this concept in psychology and especially psychology of motivation is traced with special emphasis on the two most elaborated general theories of motivation where the concept of meaning is central: J. Nuttin’s relational theory of human conduct and A.N. Leontiev’s activity theory approach. In the present-day context, the relevance of the meaning concept for attributional theories of motivation and action regulation is discussed. Personal meaning may fulfill the role of common denominator for many special models of motivation linking them together as well as with more general theoretical contexts and other problem fields.
The problem of conflicts between the financial industry professionals’ business interests and the SROs' regulatory activities is studied in this paper. With the help of the elaborated methods the intensity of the US SROs conflicts of interest is revealed since 1991 till 2010 on the basis of the industry professionals’ individual preferences with regard to financial market efficiency. We determined that the professionals gained the maximal accumulated portfolio value provided systematic deviation of the market from normality (efficiency). The professionals’ goals of utility maximization did not match the SROs’ goals of the due market regulation in accordance with the regulator and international organizations requirements. These methods and results could be used in decision making about the allocation of financial market regulatory powers between regulator and SRO.
Our research was focused on young people’s moral self-determination based on different levels of self-regulation. The author’s theoretical model and methodical approach to self-determination study is presented. Self-determination implies active individual self-development, search of ones own existential position and the choice of decisions in problematic situations. The self-regulation phenomenon appears in planning and programming life goal achievements, taking into account significant external and internal conditions, estimation of results and correcting ones’ own activity for subjective-acceptable result achievements, also it appears in the degrees of development and realization of self-organizing processes. The results have shown that young people with a medium level of self-regulation have a less positive moral position than people with high and low levels of self-regulation. For young men, the higher level of self-regulation corresponds to a more positive moral position in the case of separate conceptions of morality and moral strategies. But such regularity isn’t peculiar to young women.
The article examines the problems of delegation of public powers of authority to self-regulated organizations: public powers of authority which may be delegated, spheres of state administration, where delegation of powers is not allowed, validity of control over realization of delegated powers in all cases of such delegation and responsibility of the state for the acts of private persons who exercise public powers of authority.
The paper deals with the collective behavior of the US financial industry professionals. A relative majority voting procedure is proposed as a means of their preferences aggregation. Parameters of the US SRO activity that are based on the quantitavely revealed SRO preferences with regard to market efficiency are introduced and studied. The relationship between these parameters and the functions of representative investor risk aversion is also considered. It was shown that the parameters can serve as market integrity indexes.