Влияние Плутарха на речь Василия Великого Ad adolescentes de legendis libris gentilium
The paper considers some protreptic motifs of the First Alcibiades in St. Basil’s homily On the Words ‘Give Heed to Thyself’. Dealing with a verse from Deuteronomy (15. 9: Πρόσεχε σεαυτῷ) St. Basil evidently considers it as a biblical counterpart of the Delphic maxim «γνῶθι σαυτόν», using the sacred text to impel his audience to virtue and self-knowledge. In the second part of the paper we highlight some parallels between St. Basil’s text and the writings of Porphyry and Eusebius of Caesarea, as well as the Address to Origen, written by St. Gregory of Neocaesarea or, as some scholars suppose, by some other student of Origen. The third part is dedicated to the possible influence of Philo Judaeus and Clement of Alexandria upon St. Basil’s approach to the verse of Deuteronomy.
The article considers some protreptic motifs of the First Alcibiades in St. Basil’s homily On the Words ‘Give Heed to Thyself’. Dealing with a verse from Deuteronomy (15:9: Πρόσεχε σεαυτῷ etc.). St. Basil evidently regards it as a biblical counterpart of the Delphic maxim γνῶθι σαυτόν, using the sacred text to impel his audience to virtue and self-knowledge. In the second part of this article we highlight some parallels between St. Basil’s text, Porphyry’s writing Περὶ τοῦ γνῶθι σαυτόν, the Preparation for the Gospel XI 27 of Eusebius of Caesarea and the Address to Origen traditionally ascribed to Gregory Thaumaturgus. We finally point to similar interpretations of Πρόσεχε σεαυτῷ in Philo’s treaty On the migration of Abraham and in Clement of Alexandria’s Stromata. In conclusion, we argue that both in choice and in elaboration of his subject St. Basil follows the platonic tradition; in compliance with this tradition St. Basil associates the protreptic motifs of the First Alcibiades with the motifs of immortality and the knowledge of God. Just like for Porphyry and (as far as we can judge) for Origen, self-knowledge is not an end in itself for him; impelling his audience to ‘give heed’ he urges them to ascend towards the knowledge of God, which is the true philosophy for him. The genre of the philosophical protreptic, whose traits we find in the homily, turns out to be opportune precisely because for St. Basil, along with the earlier Christian writers, it is Christianity which is the only real philosophy.
This paper deals with the humanist reception of St. Basil’s homily In illud: attende tibi ipsi up to 1532. In the XV cent., three new Latin translations were made in the circle of cardinal Bessarion: by Bessarion himself, by his protégé Athanasius Chalkeopulos, and by an anonymous author, probably Pietro Balbi. The translation of Franciscus Maturantius was published as a separate edition in 1522, and that of Rafaelle Maffei appeared in the first Latin Opera of Basil in 1515. A review of these translations and of the dedicatory epistles shows that not only the humanistic program or theological views of Basil were of interest for the humanists. Attende tibi is valued as an example of biblical exegesis and because of its moral and ascetic content. Although, on the whole, the reception centers in this period tend to distance from the Church, all our translators, except for one, are associated with the Roman Catholic Church. The comparison of the biblical “give heed to thyself” with the Delphic “know thyself”, found in Maturantius’ dedicatory letter and in Maffei’s marginalia, aims at demonstrating the superiority of Christian wisdom, not at promoting the study of philosophy. Only two of the discussed translations were published, and a more or less large-scale dissemination of Basilius Latinus starts no earlier than in the 20s. of XVI cent., when the translation of Maffei was reissued in Paris (1520 and 1523), Cologne (in 1523 and 1531) and Basel (1523).
Dans quelle mesure et dans quel sens peut-on parler d’une « méthode » par rapport aux écrits patristiques ? La question même nous fournit l’a priori fondamental pour l’enquête suivante : on entend par là que les textes concernés ne sont pas construits εἰκῇ, mais qu’on est en mesure de discerner derrière eux un principe organisateur, une voie (μέθοδος) suivie par l’auteur plus ou moins consciemment. Dans l’Antiquité tardive, à laquelle appartiennent, au moins chronologiquement, les Péres de l’Église, ce principe organisateur est offert par deux piliers de la formation classique : la rhétorique et la philosophie.
At the end of the homily IX In Hexaemeron St. Basil the Great promises to continue his Genesis exegesis with an account of man’s creation (Hex. 9. 6. 90−91: ἐν τίνι μὲν οὖν ἔχει τὸ κατ' εἰκόνα Θεοῦ ὁ ἄνθρωπος, καὶ πῶς μεταλαμβάνει τοῦ καθ' ὁμοίωσιν). However, he never got to it (the two homilies De hominis opificio were probably written by another person). Nevertheless, a close analysis of the homily In illud: attende tibi ipsi shows that in his account of man’s creation Basil’s is very much endebted to the Alexandrian tradition which adjusted Plato’s Timaeus to the interpretation of the biblical text. A special attention will be paid to the term ζῷον θεόπλαστον.