Языковые аспекты в модели научной революции Александра Койре
The article analyses the link between the famous French epistemologists Emile Meyerson and his younger friend and disciple, historian of science Alexandre Koyré. Koyré is known primarily by his research of the history of the scientific thought; his main interest was to grasp the moments of the transformation of rational structures within the history. Nevertheless, in this paper I will argue that Alexandre Koyré in some measure accepts Emile Meyerson’s claim on the immutability of human reason that constitutes the central point of Meyerson’s epistemology. But within the rationality in general he distinguishes the immutable core that is constituted by the logical laws of reasoning and the outer level of “mentality” which is subjected to the historical changes and transformations.
This article presents two French interpretations of Anselm’s Ontological Argument. The first one was proposed by Alexandre Koyré (1892-1964) in his early book The Idea of God in the Philosophy of St. Anselm (1922). Koyré considers Anselm’s philosophy being the part of Neo-Platonist tradition along with Augustin, Pseudo-Dionisius and Eriugena. But he also found in Anselm’s argumentation a quasi-phenomenological recognition of the intentionality of the consciousness that guarantees the openness of thought to the transcendent reality. This idea was further developed by Belgian jesuit Paul Gilbert in his book dedicated to Proslogion of St. Anselm. He reads Anselm’s Argument in the vein of French reflexive philosophy and points out that the negation of the id quo maius cogitari nequit existence is at the same time the negation of the act of thought itself.
Alexandre Koyré and Pierre Duhem developed contrasting arguments on the preconditions of the Scientifi c Revolution. Duhem saw the articles of condemnation of 1277 as the motivation for medieval scholars to reconsider Aristotles natural philosophy and to look for alternatives, such as impetus physics, which led toward later works by Galileo. Koyrй, however, rejected any contribution of the Paris condemnations to the development of modern science, and he offered a contrasting interpretation of the 13th-century texts that discussed the possible existence of empty space outside the World. The two radically different views on the progress of scientifi c knowledge represented by Duhem and Koyrй served as the point of departure for many subsequent investigations that provided modifi ed and compromise solutions to the problem of medieval contributions to the new European science.
En révélant l’influence de l’interprétation de Koyré dans les lectures que fait Henry de la philosophie boehmienne, je propose d’interroger la position henryenne qui, en s’appuyant sur les concepts classiques de l’originaire et de l’authentique, refuse au monde – et par là à toute connaissance théorique – le statut de vérité. Je me demande donc s’il est suffisant d’exclure chaque tentative d’expression de la manifestation de l’Absolu. Peut-être faut-il relire le projet de la phénoménologie comme une science descriptive plutôt que prescriptive ?
The article analyzes the writing of Alexander Koiré «From the closed world to the infinite universe» in relation to several achievements of modern physics connected to fundamental concept of space. The evolution of other certain scientific concepts, such as in particular, the «vacuum» and «gravity», also comes under review. The author reaches the key point that the some modern physical theories are again based on the idea of the closed universe.