Новые платежные инструменты и технологии
Nowdays normative legal acts adopting by the government are aimed at improving the efficiency of public expenditures, associated with the stimulation of economic development. A lot of new budgetary tools are entered in our economy. Nevertheles, practical implementation of new mechanisms and tools is enough slow. This situation focuses on the efficiency of public expendirures of all budgetary levels. In accordance with the global experience, the drastic increase of the efficiency and impact of pulic expenditures can be achieved only by the way of creating the modern system of financial management in government, one of the most important part of which is an internal control and audit.
The article describes the use of Excel programme for risk assessment models: method of sensitivity analysis, scenarios method, Monte-Carlo method.
long-term investment project, risk, method of sensitivity analysis, Scenario method, method of Monte Carlo simulation
Elements of functional safety of electronic systems which depends on electromagnetic compatibility are considered. Classification of dangers, risks, a damage is given. Recommendations on design of electronic systems which are meeting the requirements of functional safety are given.
One of the important trends of payment system development is the process of clearing or netting. Clearing is a method of cashless payment based on the netting of mutual claims and liabilities of legal entities and individuals for goods (services) and securities. The main advantage of using the clearing payment systems is the ability to significantly reduce the number and total amount of payments. This explains the popularity of this type of non-cash settlements in Western Europe and the USA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the efficiency of multilateral clearing (reducing the total amount of payments by the netting) with different types of distribution of payments between settlement participants. First of all, different models of payments between settlement participants were considered in this article. Matrix and graph models are developed and used to describe set of payments. Thus the netting procedure was formalized in the form of a transport-type linear programming problem where the matrix of gross payments was used as the initial data and elements of the matrix of net payments were the required quantities. Then it was developed the different models of payment matrixes. It was demonstrated that an important factor of the clearing is the size of participants (banks), which performs the payment and that total amounts and number of payments depend on the size and capitalization of banks. The analysis also identified the main features of these models for various situations which can be found in actual payment systems. Finally, using the simulation modeling it was investigated the efficiency of the clearing process for various initial matrixes of gross payments, compared the efficiency of the procedures of bilateral and multilateral netting and identified the key factors affecting the efficiency of the multilateral interbank clearing. First, it was shown that the efficiency of multilateral clearing is almost independent of the distribution laws of payments with the same values of mathematical expectation and standard deviation. Second, it was shown that the reduction in payment amounts by the netting is highly dependent on the structure (in particular, on the density) of payment matrixes, that is, on the probability of payments. According to the research it can be concluded that the most important key factor affecting the efficiency of the clearing is the homogeneity of elements of the matrix of gross payments. The results of this work can be useful in developing real-world payment systems based on the netting process.
The chapter offers three analytical cases put together as a result of non-formalized face-to-face interviews. it is shown how different manufacturing enterprises - mature chemical firm within the vertically intergated holding, new machine-building plant which serve the demand of resource sector and the relatively new company with the foreign owner - undertake technological innovations. The barriers, motivations and risks which influence the decisions to innovate are descrived. In the end, we show how innovations affect the competitiveness.
Active vocabulary for business English students based on the business coursebook "Market Leader". The focus is on the development and mastering of business English active vocabulary for the Business Studies.