Эмпирическая типология смыслов жизни в США и России
The article is devoted to the study of the phenomenon of productive solitude in Russian and foreign papers. On the basis of existing studies are described the criteria of productive solitude and reveals its role for the meaning of life of the personality. The criteria can be used in empirial studies of productive solitude.
The development of the idea of calling is traced from its religious and philosophical roots. The present state of this problem in psychology and further lines of research are considered.
During the last two decades the phenomenon of life calling attracts considerable attention from foreign researchers. Research on calling has started in the USA and Europe and continues in China, India and South Korea. New conceptualizations keep emerging along with measurement instruments, and the main challenge faced by research community is to reach common understanding of this phenomenon. In the current paper we will describe different approaches to life calling: calling as divine command, calling as job fit and moral duty, calling as work orientation, calling as transcendent summons, calling as passion towards a domain, as well as corresponding measurement instruments. Research shows, that all those approaches address the same base construct that, supposedly, has life meaning at its core. Source of calling, prosocial character, the role of religion in calling discernment and several other aspects are still subject to discussion. Despite complications with formulating of the unified concept of calling, it is already clear, that it influences work and life in general substantially. On the one hand, calling positively affects work and life satisfaction, mitigates influence of stress and burnout, and also helps to choose life and career path. One the other hand, it may cause exploitation at work, sacrifices in the other areas of life, and also, when unfulfilled, may induce regret for missed opportunities for self-realization. The primary aim of the present paper is to attract Russian researchers’ attention to the phenomenon of life calling, to trigger further research and find its place among such concepts as life meaning, choice, personal potential, self-actualization and personalization.