Эмпирическая типология смыслов жизни в США и России
In his “Essay on Absurd” Albert Camus writes that the only important philosophical question is whether life is worth living. There is a well-known alternative behind this question: either our life has a fundamental meaning, or life is basically absurd. In other terms, God either exists or does not exist. Since the time of Socrates, philosophical thought has constantly developed this alternative in many different variations: classical philosophy preferred the religious (let's call it so) picture of the world, the non-classical tradition tended toward a secular understanding of reality. In modern philosophy, such issues are discussed in an analytical way, the appeal to the classical formulation of the question now has, rather, historical and philosophical significance. The general mood of our era, bearing in mind both Western culture and Russia, most likely, should be called secular; the only area of research relevant to the “important issue” - analytical theology - is a rather closed research system that does not have a decisive influence on the spiritual atmosphere of modern society. In this connection, it may be useful to clarify some issues related to the alternative mentioned. To do this, let us turn to the studies of Wittgenstein, whose ideas, in my opinion, put serious restrictions on philosophical and earthbound atheism.
The development of the idea of calling is traced from its religious and philosophical roots. The present state of this problem in psychology and further lines of research are considered.
The article is devoted to the consideration of the phenomenon of the existential crisis in the prism of the irresolute reading of the L. Wittgenstein’s
. A critical analysis of the atheistic existentialism of J.P. Sartre and A. Camus is given to identify the speciﬁcs of experiencing existential horror. The problem of the loss of meaning in life acquires great signiﬁcance in the light of the latest discoveries in the ﬁeld of cognitive sciences, which rep-resent a new understanding of human nature with the destruction of established concepts. The presented method of considering the phenomenon leads to the rationale for the connection of the crisis of meaninglessness with the «ineﬀable» and the proof of the impossibil-ity of a truly human existence in only factual dimension. The article focuses on the ontological prerequisites of an existential crisis. The result of the research is marked by the establishment of an emphasis on the role of value structure as a similarity of a priori form, which is a condition for the possibility of meaningful human life. A return to values is the main mechanism for the recovery from the described state of crisis with a formal diﬀerence in approaches
During the last two decades the phenomenon of life calling attracts considerable attention from foreign researchers. Research on calling has started in the USA and Europe and continues in China, India and South Korea. New conceptualizations keep emerging along with measurement instruments, and the main challenge faced by research community is to reach common understanding of this phenomenon. In the current paper we will describe different approaches to life calling: calling as divine command, calling as job fit and moral duty, calling as work orientation, calling as transcendent summons, calling as passion towards a domain, as well as corresponding measurement instruments. Research shows, that all those approaches address the same base construct that, supposedly, has life meaning at its core. Source of calling, prosocial character, the role of religion in calling discernment and several other aspects are still subject to discussion. Despite complications with formulating of the unified concept of calling, it is already clear, that it influences work and life in general substantially. On the one hand, calling positively affects work and life satisfaction, mitigates influence of stress and burnout, and also helps to choose life and career path. One the other hand, it may cause exploitation at work, sacrifices in the other areas of life, and also, when unfulfilled, may induce regret for missed opportunities for self-realization. The primary aim of the present paper is to attract Russian researchers’ attention to the phenomenon of life calling, to trigger further research and find its place among such concepts as life meaning, choice, personal potential, self-actualization and personalization.
The collection includes articles devoted to actual problems of humanitarian knowledge: unity and variety of norms in culture, specifics of normativity in the spheres of thinking, perception, practice. The issue is addressed to scholars, postgraduates and students of humanitarian specialities.