Researching of the relation between innovation activity and well-being
The article covers researching of relation between innovation activity and well-being in world countries. Common methodologies of well-being and innovation activity assessment are descripted and a new way of well-being and innovation activity measurement is considered. Subsequent comparative analysis of world countries well-being and innovation activity indicators let to look on its relation and make conclusions on the topic.
Information and communication technologies (ICT) evolvement is a mainstream of modern society progress. From one hand, ICT provide great demand on innovations, and from the other hand, new technologies foster futher information and communication development. These two processes along with interaction between them seem to be a matter of great importance for effective improving of economic and social life. The level of ICT development is substantially different not only in different countries, but also in different regions of such a big country as Russian Federation. A lot of indicators are published and widely used for measuring the ICT and innovation development. But sets of indicators for countries and countries' regions generally are different and need to become closer. Effective management implicates adequate impact on each particular part of the regional system. In this paper we introduce models providing relevant regions classification on both innovation activity and ICT development and report on our experience in analysis of their interplay. When it is well grounded we use parametric approach to creating models of regional stratification, and kernel density estimates allow proving the premises for it. In multidimensional case, the fuzzy clusterisation shows the best results and provide creating profiles of the groups and their kernels. Created models allow revealing peculiarities of the groups that provides using relevant means for fostering the technological progress in regions and in a country as a whole
Positive Psychology has become a major approach to the scientific study of individual, social, community and cultural processes. This book includes a selection of papers presented at the 3rd European Conference on Positive Psychology, organized in Braga at the University of Minho, Portugal in 2006. The title of the book reflects its main purpose and a main concern for positive psychology - Understanding Positive Life - balanced between the two scientific pillars, the research and the practice. Several contributions concerning theory, research and practice are presented in three different parts: Happiness, Well-being and Life Satisfaction (Part I); Performance, Coping and Quality of life (Part II); and assessment, Intervention and Practice for a Positive Life (Part III). Each part includes eight chapters, with a great diversity of authors coming from different countries.
The existing findings on the relationship between optimism and academic performance are rather contradictory. Two studies were undertaken to investigate thе relationship between attributional style, well-being, and academic performance. A new Russian-language measure of attributional style for positive and negative events (Gordeeva, Osin, Shevyakhova, 2009) with stability, globality, and controllability subscales was used. In the first study, optimistic attributional style for good events was associated with higher academic achievement in high school students (N=225) and mediated the effect of academic performance on self-esteem. In the second study, pessimistic attributional style for negative events predicted success in passing three difficult written entrance examinations in university entrants (N=108), and optimistic attributional style for good events predicted success with success expectations as a mediator. The results indicate that attributional styles for positive and negative events are not uniform in their relationship to performance in different academic settings and to well-being variables.
Two studies were conducted investigating the relationship between the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) scales and well-being measures in British (N¼179) and Russian (N¼289) student samples. On the basis of person-oriented approach, a cluster-analysis operationalization of Balanced Time Perspective (BTP) using ZTPI was proposed and validated, demonstrating more evidence for its validity than the previously suggested cut-off-point approach. Four distinct time perspective patterns were discovered in both samples: future-oriented, present-oriented, balanced and negative. The clusters revealed significant differences in well-being, with members of the BTP cluster demonstrating the highest scores in both samples. The relationship between ZTPI and Temporal Life Satisfaction Scale in the British sample was found to be non-uniform for past, present and future. Based on these findings, a distinction between three aspects of time perspective is theoretically proposed, and its implications for the future development of the ZTPI are discussed.
This book provides a reference tool to understand current developments in happiness studies. It provides an overview of the evolving body of happiness research and draws some of its future trajectories. This book collects the contributions of scientists from psychology, sociology, economics, political science and other scientific domains sharing the quest for improving people's quality of life. Building on this expertise, the book provides a compass to orient the reader in a burgeoning literature to document, inform and suggest ideas for future research.