Закон распределения случайной величины
This is the first book on the U.S. presidential election system to analyze the basic principles underlying the design of the existing system and those at the heart of competing proposals for improving the system. The book discusses how the use of some election rules embedded in the U.S. Constitution and in the Presidential Succession Act may cause skewed or weird election outcomes and election stalemates. The book argues that the act may not cover some rare though possible situations which the Twentieth Amendment authorizes Congress to address. Also, the book questions the constitutionality of the National Popular Vote Plan to introduce a direct popular presidential election de facto, without amending the Constitution, and addresses the plan’s “Achilles’ Heel.” In particular, the book shows that the plan may violate the Equal Protection Clause from the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution. Numerical examples are provided to show that the counterintuitive claims of the NPV originators and proponents that the plan will encourage presidential candidates to “chase” every vote in every state do not have any grounds. Finally, the book proposes a plan for improving the election system by combining at the national level the “one state, one vote” principle – embedded in the Constitution – and the “one person, one vote” principle. Under this plan no state loses its current Electoral College benefits while all the states gain more attention of presidential candidates.
The present manual is written on the basis of the course on inductive logic which is delivered in English to philosophy students of National Research University Higher School of Economics. The manual describes the main approaches to constructing inductive logic; it clarifies its key notions and rules, and it formulates its major problems. This introductory text can be useful for all readers who are interested in contemporary inductive logic.
Two statements of the problem for the division of a population of elements into a given number of discernible parts with and without limitations applied to their dimensions or compositions are distinguished. Under conditions of these statements, the problem under consideration with varying quality of elements by their discernibility is resolved in the following aspects (sub-problems): explicit enumeration of the results of element division schemes, determination of their total quantities, the problem of result indexing in the basic permutation schemes with repetitions, calculation of probabilistic distributions of all possible results and their modelling in the division schemes under study.
The controversial question of how J.M. Keyness early philosophical ideas influenced the essence and the method of his economic works, first and foremost The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money is under consideration in a broad historical context. Intellectual sources, basic ideas and concepts of Keyness logic of probability are presented in brief as well as major criticism of Keyness view.
Probability and statistics are as much about intuition and problem solving as they are about theorem proving. Consequently,
students can find it difficult to make a successful transition from lectures, to examinations, to practice because the problems
involved can vary so much in nature. Since the subject is critical in so many applications, from insurance, to telecommunications,
to bioinformatics, the authors have collected more than 200 worked examples to help the students develop a deep
understanding of the subject rather than a superficial knowledge of sophisticated theories. With amusing stories and
historical asides sprinkled thoughout, this enjoyable book will leave students better equipped to solve problems in practice
and under exam conditions.