Самоорганизация и социальная политика
The aim of this edited volume is to critically discuss different political aspects of poverty theoretically as well as empirically. Both the industrialised world as well as the developing world are covered.
This book by Jonathan Morduch and Rachel Schneider allows us to be immersed in the life of American families and to discover the most hidden area of family life— financial well-being. Reading this book, it is possible to find out how household income is formed, how money is spent, how savings are made, what kind of debt practices are applied and, most importantly, what problems and decision-making processes Americans have to face on this difficult path. The authors compare the financial path of the study participants to a rocky road, and their lives to a struggle in a world of uncertainty. The researchers show that the main problem for people in the US is not low income but instability, which leads to the fact that families live far from the normal financial patterns for almost half the year. The results show how far American families are from the predictions of Franco Modigliani’s lifecycle model and how misunderstood they remain by the main programs of social support which are mainly built around long-term plans and specific goals such as retirement savings, while families need short-term assistance—to live to the next month. The research topic is, of course, extremely urgent, and its implementation deserves recognition in the methodological field of research into the financial behavior of families. This is an example of financial ethnography, which is embodied in the book and can bring each reader closer to understanding how real families live on another continent and what problems they have to face.
This is the first paper on consumer search where the cost of going back to stores already searched is explicitly taken into account. We show that the optimal sequential search rule under costly second visits is very different from the traditional reservation price rule in that it is nonstationary and not independent of previously sampled prices. We explore the implications of costly second visits on market equilibrium in two celebrated search models. In the Wolinsky model some consumers search beyond the first firm and in this class of models costly second visits do make a substantive difference: equilibrium prices under costly second visits can both be higher and lower than their perfect recall analogues. In the oligopoly search model of Stahl where consumers do not search beyond the first firm, there remains a unique symmetric equilibrium that has firms use pricing strategies that are identical to the perfect recall case.
On the basis of in-depth case studies of four Russian regions, Kirov and Voronezh oblasts and Krasnoyarsk and Perm' krais, the trade-offs among social and economic policy at the regional level in Russia are examined. All four regional governments seek to develop entrepreneurship while preserving social welfare obligations and improving compensation in the public sector. Richer regions have a greater ability to reconcile social commitments with the promotion of business. Regions differ in their development strategies, some placing greater emphasis on indigenous business development and others seeking to attract federal or foreign investment. Governors have considerable discretion in choosing their strategy so long as they meet basic performance demands set by the federal government such as ensuring good results for the United Russia party. In all four regions, governments consult actively with local business associations whereas organized labor is weak. However, the absence of effective institutions to enforce commitments undertaken by government and its social partners undermines regional capacity to use social policy as a basis for long-term economic development.
Reorganizing the social services market to allow for its access non-state providers is a major innovation in Russia. Welfare mix concepts give a theoretical justification to this innovation. The key element of justification is the demonstration of advantages NPOs have as services providers compared to state-owned or private organizations fulfilling similar functions. However, a more careful assessment of the outlook of Russian NPOs on the emerging social services market requires an analysis of their comparative disadvantages as well. This paper aims at investigating organizational weaknesses of Russian nonprofit providers of social services funded by the state drawing on foreign and Russian experience of practices in cross-sectoral cooperation. The paper first addresses some key comparative disadvantages rooted in the economic and financial foundations of NPOs. The authors then investigate weaknesses related to the level of professionalism in social services delivery by NPOs to suggest some recommendations on measures the government and the nonprofit sector respectively could contemplate to compensate for NPOs’ comparative disadvantages, so that the potential capacity of NPOs to generate innovative solutions is best utilized in the interests of a more efficient social policy. For the verification of theory and for international comparisons of practices of cross-sectoral cooperation Russian sociological data gathered in the course of a long-term NRU HSE project on Monitoring Russian Civil Society are used.