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Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is a mathematical technique that has been extensively applied to Boolean data in knowledge discovery, information retrieval, web mining, etc. applications. During the past years, the research on extending FCA theory to cope with imprecise and incomplete information made significant progress. In this paper, we give a systematic overview of the more than 120 papers published between 2003 and 2011 on FCA with fuzzy attributes and rough FCA. We applied traditional FCA as a text-mining instrument to 1072 papers mentioning FCA in the abstract. These papers were formatted in pdf files and using a thesaurus with terms referring to research topics, we transformed them into concept lattices. These lattices were used to analyze and explore the most prominent research topics within the FCA with fuzzy attributes and rough FCA research communities. FCA turned out to be an ideal metatechnique for representing large volumes of unstructured texts.
Many semantic text analysis problems employ string-to-text relevance measures. Research paper annotation problem is no exception. In general, research papers are annotated according to a system of topics, organized as a taxonomy, a hierarchy of topics (or concepts). For example the papers, published in journals of the international Association of Computing Machinery (ACM), the most influential organization in the Computer Science world, are annotated according to the Computing Classification System taxonomy (ACM CCS).
String-to-text relevance measures should be used to automate the research paper annotation procedure since taxonomy topics are strings ant research papers or any of their constituents are texts. A relevance measure maps a string–text pair to a real number. The meaning of the mapping depends on the relevance model under consideration. Under any model, the higher the relevance value, the stronger the association between the string and the text.
This paper explores the use of phrase-to-text relevance measures to annotate research papers in Computer Science by key phrases taken from the ACM Computing Classification System. Three phrase-to-text relevance measures are experimentally compared in this setting. The measures are: (a) cosine relevance score between conventional vector space representations of the texts coded with tf-idf weighting; (b) a popular characteristic of the probability of “elite” term generation BM25; and (c) a characteristic of the symbol conditional probability averaged over matching fragments in suffix trees representing texts and phrases, CPAMF, introduced by the authors. Our experiment is conducted over a set of texts published in journals of the ACM and manually annotated by their authors using topics from the ACM CCS. Applying any of the relevance measures to an article results in a list of taxonomy topics sorted in the descending order of their relevance values. The results are evaluated by comparing these sorted lists and lists of topics assigned to articles manually. The higher a manually assigned topic is placed in a relevance based sorted list of topics, the more accurate the sorted list is. The accuracy of the computational annotations is scored by using three different scoring functions: a) MAP, b) nDCG, c) Intersection at k, where (a) and (b) are taken from the literature, and (c) is introduced by the authors. It appears, CPAMF outperforms both the cosine measure and BM25 by a wide margin over all three scoring functions.
This volume contains proceedings of the fourth conference on Analysis of Images, Social Networks and Texts (AIST’2015)1 . The first three conferences in 2012–2014 attracted a significant number of students, researchers, academics and engineers working on interdisciplinary data analysis of images, texts, and social networks. The broad scope of AIST makes it an event where researchers from different domains, such as image and text processing, exploiting various data analysis techniques, can meet and exchange ideas. We strongly believe that this may lead to crossfertilisation of ideas between researchers relying on modern data analysis machinery. Therefore, AIST brings together all kinds of applications of data mining and machine learning techniques. The conference allows specialists from different fields to meet each other, present their work, and discuss both theoretical and practical aspects of their data analysis problems. Another important aim of the conference is to stimulate scientists and people from the industry to benefit from the knowledge exchange and identify possible grounds for fruitful collaboration. The conference was held during April 9–11, 2015. Following an already established tradition, the conference was organised in Yekaterinburg, a cross-roads between European and Asian parts of Russia, the capital of Urals region.The key topics of AIST are analysis of images and videos; natural language processing and computational linguistics; social network analysis; pattern recognition, machine learning and data mining; recommender systems and collaborative technologies; semantic web, ontologies and their applications. The Program Committee and the reviewers of the conference included wellknown experts in data mining and machine learning, natural language processing, image processing, social network analysis, and related areas from leading institutions of 22 countries including Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Cyprus, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, India, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Qatar, Russia, Spain, The Netherlands, UK, USA and Ukraine.
Concept Relation Discovery and Innovation Enabling Technology (CORDIET), is a toolbox for gaining new knowledge from unstructured text data. At the core of CORDIET is the C-K theory which captures the essential elements of innovation. The tool uses Formal Concept Analysis (FCA), Emergent Self Organizing Maps (ESOM) and Hidden Markov Models (HMM) as main artifacts in the analysis process. The user can define temporal, text mining and compound attributes. The text mining attributes are used to analyze the unstructured text in documents, the temporal attributes use these document’s timestamps for analysis. The compound attributes are XML rules based on text mining and temporal attributes. The user can cluster objects with object-cluster rules and can chop the data in pieces with segmentation rules. The artifacts are optimized for efficient data analysis; object labels in the FCA lattice and ESOM map contain an URL on which the user can click to open the selected document.
Formal Concept Analysis (FCA) is an unsupervised clustering technique and many scientific papers are devoted to applying FCA in Information Retrieval (IR) research. We collected 103 papers published between 2003-2009 which mention FCA and information retrieval in the abstract, title or keywords. Using a prototype of our FCA-based toolset CORDIET, we converted the pdf-files containing the papers to plain text, indexed them with Lucene using a thesaurus containing terms related to FCA research and then created the concept lattice shown in this paper. We visualized, analyzed and explored the literature with concept lattices and discovered multiple interesting research streams in IR of which we give an extensive overview. The core contributions of this paper are the innovative application of FCA to the text mining of scientific papers and the survey of the FCA-based IR research.