The article focuses on people who took part in opposition rallies during the winter 2011– 2012 in Moscow and on language that they used to create protest signs and slogans. Who were the protesters? Whom did they address? What were they going to say and how? The research is based on the database that includes more than 1500 slogans containing verbal or nonverbal protest signs from mass opposition rallies. The article also includes information on “authors” (people who held placards, their age, and gender proportion), describes the “frames” which they used with a reference either to a precedent text or a precedent case, and explores the occurrence of different frames. Slogans with quotes, frequency of citing the authorities or mass culture texts, and the usage of pun are considered. Finally, the addressees of slogans are described.
The article is devoted to the investigation of precedent texts and their functioning in modern mass and scientific communication. The main factors contributing to widespread usage of precedents in mass communication are considered to be a search for new forms of expressivity, a tendency to language game, as well as carnivalization of the dialogue with the reader. In scientific communication precedent signs, such as Pythagor’s theorem, Mendeleyev’s table, Newton’s binom provide compression of old knowledge with the purpose of its preservation and accumulation. The author introduces the concept of entropy understood as a measure of uncertainty of the intertextual content. Particular attention is paid to the problem of cultural lit-eracy of modern readers who lose the ability to decode sociocultural codes of the message “encrypted” in precedent texts.
The article describes the main genre forms of “story within story” in “The Alhambra” by W. Irving: history, anecdote, legend. Tradition is the least rigid of the genres. Anecdote is an instructive story involving historic personages. Legend shares the form of the fairy tale and becomes the major genre of romanticism narrative.