Реформа партийного законодательства и организационное устройство партий
The article analyzes the political development of a party system in Portugal during the constitutional monarchy period. It is alleged that the party system of the XIX th century was in political instability to the mid-century because of the never-ending civil war between cadre parties. The imperfect two-party system regime triumphed after 1851. The stability of the rotational principle shattered with the appearance of new mass-based parties. That was extremely important for the beginning of the transition process to a multiparty system.
The collection contains materials of the all-Russian scientific and practical conference devoted to the most actual problems of the research the state, law and economy. For teaching staff, doctoral students, adjuncts, cadets, students of educational organizations of the Ministry of internal Affairs of Russia, employees internal Affairs bodies of the Russian Federation.
The author analyzes the party system of Portugal during military dictatorship that emerged after the coup on 28 May 1926, briefly describes the essence of this authoritarian political regime, and considers the party system evolution from a “non-party” to actually a single-party one, which became the basis for Antonio Salazar's “New State” regime.
The study of mixed electoral systems has gained in popularity due to frequent experiments with electoral systems in post-communist countries. Russia represents an interesting lab for this research, as it is a country that had switched to the proportional system in the 2007 parliamentary elections, and then moved back to mixed-member system in 2016 that also has seen its dominant party system strengthen. This research shows a gradual decline in competition in electoral districts, which is interrelated with the institutionalization of the party system, and which peaked after the creation of a dominant party and the disappearance of independent candidates. A comparative analysis of elections on the basis of votes received by party lists and voting in single-mandate districts suggests there is a high level of interrelation between two simultaneous voting processes, confirming the well-known thesis of “contamination” in the mixed system. At the same time, a comparison of the diverse parties allows us to suggest that the level of that interrelation, and the vote ratio, are dependent on the characteristics of the party concerned. The research showed that, in a dominant party system, electoral competition in districts delivers higher results than in voting by party lists, and the voters demonstrate a strategic approach to supporting parties rather than voting for particular candidates in particular districts. This leads to a lower level of electoral support for candidates from large parties in comparison to the vote received by the parties themselves.